Genghis Khan’s Tengriism

Publicado: março 8, 2009 por Yogi em Culture, History, Media, Tudo
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Genghis Khan’s religion is widely speculated to be Shamanism or Tengriism, which was very likely among nomadic MongolTurkic tribes of Central Asia. But he was very tolerant religiously, and interested to learn philosophical and moral lessons from other religions. To do so, he consulted among others with  Christian   missionaries,  Muslim   merchants, and the Taoist monk Qiu Chuji.

Tengriism (Tengrism, Tengrianism, Tengrianizm, Tengricilik) was the major belief of the Mongols andTurkic peoples before the vast majority joined the established world religions. It focuses around the sky deityTengri (also Tangri, Tangra, Tanrı, etc.) and incorporates elements of shamanismanimismtotemism andancestor worship.

“Khukh” and “Tengri” literally mean “blue” and “sky” in Mongolian language and modern Mongolians still pray to “Munkh khukh tengri” (“eternal blue sky”). Therefore Mongolia is called as “land of Eternal Blue Sky (“Munkh khukh tengriin oron” in Mongolian). And also in modern Turkey Tengriism is sometimes called Gök Tanrı religion by some scholars. Note that the Turkish “Gök” and “Tanrı” mean the same as and sound very similar to the Mongolian “khukh” (blue) and “Tengri” (sky), respectively. Even though there is insufficient research, Tengriism is thought to heavily influence the Alevi belief system. Today, there are still a large number of Tengriist people living in inner Asia, such as the Khakas and Tuvans.

In Tengriism, the meaning of life is seen as living in harmony with the surrounding world. Tengriist believers view their existence as sustained by the eternal blue SkyTengri, the fertile Mother-Earth, spirit Eje, and a ruler who is regarded as the holy spirit of the SkyHeavenEarth, the spirits of nature and the ancestors provide every need and protect all humans. By living an upright and respectful life, a human being will keep his world in balance and maximize his personal power Wind HorseShamans play an important role in restoring balance when it is thrown off by disaster or spirit interference.

It is likely that Tengriism was the religion of the HunsEurasian Avars, early Hungarians, and of the early Bulgarswho brought it to Europe.[3]. It is still actively practised in SakhaBuryatiaTuva, and Mongolia, in parallel withTibetan Buddhism and Burkhanism.

 

A diagram of the Tengriist World view on a shaman‘s drum [1] [2]. The World-tree is growing in the centre and connecting the three Worlds: UnderworldMiddleworldand Upperworld.

 

An ovoo (Mongolianовооheap) is a type of shamanistic cairn found in Mongolia, usually made from rocks or from wood. Ovoos are often found at the top of mountains and in high places, like mountain passes. They serve mainly as religious sites, used in worship of the mountains and the sky as well as in Buddhist ceremonies, but often are also landmarks. At especially prominent sites, ovoos can come in clusters, for example of 13 ovoos.

When travelling, it is custom to stop and circle an ovoo three times in clockwise direction, in order to have a safer journey. Usually, rocks are picked up from the ground and added to the pile. Also, one may leave offerings in the form of sweets, money, milk, or vodka.

Ovoos are also used in mountain- and sky-worshipping ceremonies that typically take place at the end of summer. Worshippers place a tree branch or stick in the ovoo and tie a blue khadag, a ceremonial silk scarf symbolic of the open sky, to the branch.[1] They then light a fire and make food offerings, followed by a ceremonial dance and prayers (worshippers sitting at the northwest side of the ovoo), and a feast with the food left over from the offering.

During Mongolia’s Communist period, ovoo worship was officially prohibited along with other forms of religion, but people still worshipped clandestinely.[2]

comentários
  1. Bruno disse:

    Infelizmente eu não sei bem e não tenho paciência para ler em inglês, mas sobre o Gengis Kan, recomendo o livro O lobo das Planícies, de Conn Iggulden.

  2. Silk Ties disse:

    Be aware of what good and bad results..There is no dignity quite so impressive, and no one independence quite so important, as living within your means..Great post!!

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