Posts com Tag ‘partidos políticos’

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Nonviolence is a philosophy and strategy for social change that rejects the use of physical violence. As such, nonviolence is an alternative to passive acceptance of oppression and armed struggle against it. Practitioners of nonviolence may use diverse methods in their campaigns for social change, including critical forms of education and persuasion, civil disobedience and nonviolent direct action, and targeted communication via mass media.

In modern times, nonviolence has been a powerful tool for social protest. Mahatma Gandhi led a decades-long nonviolent struggle against British rule in India, which eventually helped India win its independence in 1947. About 10 years later, Martin Luther King adopted Gandhi’s nonviolent methods in his struggle to win civil rights for African Americans. Then in the 1960s César Chávez organized a campaign of nonviolence to protest the treatment of farm workers in California. As Chavez once explained, “Nonviolence is not inaction. It is not for the timid or the weak. It is hard work, it is the patience to win.”[1] Another recent nonviolent movement was the “Velvet Revolution“, a nonviolent revolution in Czechoslovakia that saw the overthrow of the Communist government in 1989.[2] It is seen as one of the most important of the Revolutions of 1989.

The 14th and current Dalai Lama, Tenzin Gyatso. Dalai Lama said nonviolence is the only way progress can be made with China.[3][4]

The term “nonviolence” is often linked with or even used as a synonym for pacifism; however, the two concepts are fundamentally different. Pacifism denotes the rejection of the use of violence as a personal decision on moral or spiritual grounds, but does not inherently imply any inclination toward change on a sociopolitical level. Nonviolence on the other hand, presupposes the intent of (but does not limit it to) social or political change as a reason for the rejection of violence. Also, a person may advocate nonviolence in a specific context while advocating violence in other contexts.

Forms

Advocates of nonviolence believe cooperation and consent are the roots of political power: all regimes, including bureaucratic institutions, financial institutions, and the armed segments of society (such as the military and police); depend on compliance from citizens.[5] On a national level, the strategy of nonviolence seeks to undermine the power of rulers by encouraging people to withdraw their consent and cooperation. The forms of nonviolence draw inspiration from both religious or ethical beliefs and political analysis. Religious or ethically based nonviolence is sometimes referred to as principled, philosophical, or ethical nonviolence, while nonviolence based on political analysis is often referred to as tactical, strategic, or pragmatic nonviolence. Commonly, both of these dimensions may be present within the thinking of particular movements or individuals.[6]

Philosophical

Buddha, known for his theory of nonviolence

Mahavira,To liberate one’s self, Mahavira taught the necessity of right faith, right knowledge and right conduct. Right conduct includes five great vows out of which first is Nonviolence (Ahimsa) – to cause no harm to any living being in any manner

Love of the enemy, or the realization of the humanity of all people, is a fundamental concept of philosophical nonviolence. The goal of this type of nonviolence is not to defeat the enemy, but to win them over and create love and understanding between all.[7] It is this principle which is most closely associated with spiritual or religious justifications of nonviolence, the central tenets of which can be found in each of the major Abrahamic religious traditions (Islam, Judaism and Christianity) as well as in the major Dharmic religious traditions (Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism). It is also found in many pagan religious traditions. Nonviolent movements, leaders, and advocates have at times referred to, drawn from and utilised many diverse religious basis for nonviolence within their respective struggles. Examples of nonviolence found in religion and spirituality include the Sermon on the Mount when Jesus urges his followers to “love thine enemy,” in the Taoist concept of wu-wei, or effortless action, in the philosophy of the martial art Aikido, in the Buddhist principle of metta, or loving-kindness towards all beings; and in the principle of ahimsa, or nonviolence toward any being, shared by Buddhism, Jainism and some forms of Hinduism. Additionally, focus on both nonviolence and forgiveness of sin can be found in the story of Abel in the Qur’an; Liberal movements within Islam have consequently used this story to promote Jewish ideals of nonviolence.

Respect or love for opponents also has a pragmatic justification, in that the technique of separating the deeds from the doers allows for the possibility of the doers changing their behaviour, and perhaps their beliefs. Martin Luther King said, “Nonviolence means avoiding not only external physical violence but also internal violence of spirit. You not only refuse to shoot a man, but you refuse to hate him.”

Pragmatic

The fundamental concept of pragmatic nonviolence is to create a social dynamic or political movement that can effect social change without necessarily winning over those who wish to maintain the status quo.[7] In modern industrial democracies, nonviolence has been used extensively by political sectors without mainstream political power such as labor, peace, environment and women’s movements. Lesser known is the role that nonviolence has played and continues to play in undermining the power of repressive political regimes in the developing world and the former eastern bloc. Susan Ives emphasized this point with a quote from Walter Wink, “In 1989, thirteen nations comprising 1,695,000,000 people experienced nonviolent revolutions that succeeded beyond anyone’s wildest expectations… If we add all the countries touched by major nonviolent actions in our century (the Philippines, South Africa… the independence movement in India…) the figure reaches 3,337,400,000, a staggering 65% of humanity! All this in the teeth of the assertion, endlessly repeated, that nonviolence doesn’t work in the ‘real’ world.”[8]

As a technique for social struggle, nonviolence has been described as “the politics of ordinary people”, reflecting its historically mass-based use by populations throughout the world and history. Struggles most often associated with nonviolence are the non co-operation campaign for Indian independence led by Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, the struggle to attain civil rights for African Americans, led by Martin Luther King, and People Power in the Philippines.

Also of primary significance is the notion that just means are the most likely to lead to just ends. When Gandhi said that “the means may be likened to the seed, the end to a tree,” he expressed the philosophical kernel of what some refer to as prefigurative politics. Martin Luther King, a student of Gandhian non-violent resistance, concurred with this tenet of the method, concluding that “…nonviolence demands that the means we use must be as pure as the ends we seek.” Proponents of nonviolence reason that the actions taken in the present inevitably re-shape the social order in like form. They would argue, for instance, that it is fundamentally irrational to use violence to achieve a peaceful society. People have come to use nonviolent methods of struggle from a wide range of perspectives and traditions. A landless peasant in Brazil may nonviolently occupy a parcel of land for purely practical motivations. If they don’t, the family will starve. A Buddhist monk in Thailand may “ordain” trees in a threatened forest, drawing on the teachings of Buddha to resist its destruction. A waterside worker in England may go on strike in socialist and union political traditions. All the above are using nonviolent methods but from different standpoints. Likewise, secular political movements have utilised nonviolence, either as a tactical tool or as a strategic program on purely pragmatic and strategic levels, relying on its political effectiveness rather than a claim to any religious, moral, or ethical worthiness.

Gandhi used the weapon of non-violence against British Raj

Finally, the notion of Satya, or truth, is central to the Gandhian conception of nonviolence. Gandhi saw truth as something that is multifaceted and unable to be grasped in its entirety by any one individual. All carry pieces of the truth, he believed, but all need the pieces of others’ truths in order to pursue the greater truth. This led him to believe in the inherent worth of dialogue with opponents, in order to understand motivations. On a practical level, the willingness to listen to another’s point of view is largely dependent on reciprocity. In order to be heard by one’s opponents, one must also be prepared to listen.[citation needed]

Nonviolence has even obtained a level of institutional recognition and endorsement at the global level. On November 10, 1998, the United Nations General Assembly proclaimed the first decade of the 21st century and the third millennium, the years 2001 to 2010, as the International Decade for the Promotion of a Culture of Peace and Non-Violence for the Children of the World.

Living

The violence embedded in most of the world’s societies causes many to consider it an inherent part of human nature, but others (Riane Eisler, Walter Wink, Daniel Quinn) have suggested that violence – or at least the arsenal of violent strategies we take for granted – is a phenomenon of the last five to ten thousand years, and was not present in pre-domestication and early post-domestication human societies. This view shares several characteristics with the Victorian ideal of the Noble savage.

For many, practicing nonviolence goes deeper than withholding from violent behavior or words. It means caring in one’s heart for everyone, even those one strongly disagrees with, that is who are antithetical or opposed. For some, this principle entails a commitment to restorative or transformative justice and prison abolition. By extrapolation comes the necessity of caring for those who are not practicing nonviolence, who are violent. Of course no one can simply will themselves to have such care, and this is one of the great personal challenges posed by nonviolence – once one believes in nonviolence in theory, how can the person live it?

Animal rights

Nonviolence, for some, involves extending it to animals, usually through vegetarianism or veganism.

Methods

Martin Luther King

Nonviolent action generally comprises three categories: Acts of Protest and Persuasion, Noncooperation, and Nonviolent Intervention. [9]

Acts of protest

Nonviolent acts of protest and persuasion are symbolic actions performed by a group of people to show their support or disapproval of something. The goal of this kind of action is to bring public awareness to an issue, persuade or influence a particular group of people, or to facilitate future nonviolent action. The message can be directed toward the public, opponents, or people affected by the issue. Methods of protest and persuasion include speeches, public communications, petitions, symbolic acts, art, processions (marches), and other public assemblies.[10]

Noncooperation

Noncooperation involves the purposeful withholding of cooperation or the unwillingness to initiate in cooperation with an opponent. The goal of noncooperation is to halt or hinder an industry, political system, or economic process. Methods of noncooperation include labor strikes, economic boycotts, civil disobedience, tax refusal, and general disobedience.[10]

Nonviolent intervention

Nonviolent intervention, compared to protest and noncooperation, is a more direct method of nonviolent action. Nonviolent intervention can be used defensively—for example to maintain an institution or independent initiative—or offensively- for example to drastically forward a nonviolent struggle into the opponent’s territory. Intervention is often more immediate and effective than the other two methods, but is also harder to maintain and more taxing to the participants involved. Methods of intervention includes occupations (sit-ins), blockades, fasting (hunger strikes), truck cavalcades, and dual sovereignty/parallel government. [10]

Tactics must be carefully chosen, taking into account political and cultural circumstances, and form part of a larger plan or strategy. Gene Sharp, a political scientist and nonviolence activist, has written extensively about methods of nonviolence including a list of 198 methods of nonviolent action.[11] In early Greece, AristophanesLysistrata gives the fictional example of women withholding sexual favors from their husbands until war was abandoned. The deterrence of violent attack and promotion peaceful resolution of conflicts, as a method of intervention across borders, has occurred throughout history with some failures (at least on the level of deterring attack) such as the Human Shields in Iraq because it failed to ascertain the value of the goal compared with the value of human life in its context of war; but also many successes, such as the work of the Guatemala Accompaniment Project[12]. Several non-governmental organizations, including Peace Brigades International and Christian Peacemaker Teams, are working in this area . Their primary tactics are unarmed accompaniment, human rights observation, and reporting.[13][14]

Einstein was a strong supporter of nonviolence

Another powerful tactic of nonviolent intervention invokes public scrutiny of the oppressors as a result of the resisters remaining nonviolent in the face of violent repression. If the military or police attempt to violently repress nonviolent resisters, the power to act shifts from the hands of the oppressors to those of the resisters. If the resisters are persistent, the military or police will be forced to accept the fact that they no longer have any power over the resisters. Often, the willingness of the resisters to suffer has a profound effect on the mind and emotions of the oppressor, leaving them unable to commit such a violent act again. [15][16].

There are also many other leaders and theorists of nonviolence who have thought deeply about the spiritual and practical aspects of nonviolence, including: Leo Tolstoy, Lech Wałęsa, Petra Kelly, Nhat Hanh, Dorothy Day, Ammon Hennacy, Albert Einstein, John Howard Yoder, Stanley Hauerwas, David McReynolds, Johan Galtung, Martin Luther King, Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, Daniel Berrigan, Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan, Mario Rodríguez Cobos (pen name Silo) and César Chávez.

We will wear you down by our capacity to suffer.
— Martin Luther King, 1963[17]

Green politics

Part of the Politics series on
Green politics
Sunflower
Environment Portal
Politics portal
v d e

Nonviolence has been a central concept in green political philosophy. It is included in the Global Greens Charter. Greens believe that society should reject the current patterns of violence and embrace nonviolence. Green Philosophy draws heavily on both Gandhi and the Quaker traditions, which advocate measures by which the escalation of violence can be avoided, while not cooperating with those who commit violence. These greens believe that the current patterns of violence are incompatible with a sustainable society because it uses up limited resources and many forms of violence, especially nuclear weapons, are damaging for the environment. Violence also diminishes one and the group.

Some green political parties, like the Dutch GroenLinks, evolved out of the cooperation of the peace movement with the environmental movement in their resistance to nuclear weapons and nuclear energy.

As Green Parties have moved from the fringes of society towards becoming more and more influential in government circles, this commitment to nonviolence has had to be more clearly defined. In many cases, this has meant that the party has had to articulate a position on non-violence that differentiates itself from classic pacifism. The leader of the German Greens, for example, was instrumental in the NATO intervention in Serbia, arguing that being in favor of nonviolence should never lead to passive acceptance of genocide. Similarly, Elizabeth May of the Green Party of Canada has stated that the Canadian intervention in Afghanistan is justified as a means of supporting women’s rights.

This movement by Green leadership has caused some internal dissension, as the traditional pacifist position is that there is no justification ever for committing violence.

Revolution

Certain individuals (Barbara Deming, Danilo Dolci, Devere Allen etc.) and party groups (eg. Committees of Correspondence for Democracy and Socialism, Democratic Socialists of America, Socialist Party USA, Socialist Resistance or War Resisters League) have advocated nonviolent revolution as an alternative to violence as well as elitist reformism. This perspective is usually connected to militant anti-capitalism.

Many leftist and socialist movements have hoped to mount a “peaceful revolution” by organizing enough strikers to completely paralyze it. With the state and corporate apparatus thus crippled, the workers would be able to re-organize society along radically different lines.[citation needed] Some have argued that a relatively nonviolent revolution would require fraternisation with military forces.[18]

Criticism

Leon Trotsky, Frantz Fanon, Reinhold Niebuhr, Subhash Chandra Bose, George Orwell, Ward Churchill[19] and Malcolm X were fervent critics of nonviolence, arguing variously that nonviolence and pacifism are an attempt to impose the morals of the bourgeoisie upon the proletariat, that violence is a necessary accompaniment to revolutionary change, or that the right to self-defense is fundamental.

Malcolm X criticised nonviolence

In the midst of violent repression of radical African Americans in the United States during the 1960s, Black Panther member George Jackson said of the nonviolent tactics of Martin Luther King, Jr.:

“The concept of nonviolence is a false ideal. It presupposes the existence of compassion and a sense of justice on the part of one’s adversary. When this adversary has everything to lose and nothing to gain by exercising justice and compassion, his reaction can only be negative.”[20][21]

Malcolm X also clashed with civil rights leaders over the issue of nonviolence, arguing that violence should not be ruled out where no option remained:

“I believe it’s a crime for anyone being brutalized to continue to accept that brutality without doing something to defend himself.”[22]

Lance Hill criticizes nonviolence as a failed strategy and argues that black armed self-defense and civil violence motivated civil rights reforms more than peaceful appeals to morality and reason (see Lance Hill’s “Deacons for Defense”)[23].

In his book How Nonviolence Protects the State, anarchist Peter Gelderloos criticizes nonviolence as being ineffective, racist, statist, patriarchal, tactically and strategical inferior to militant activism, and deluded.[24] Gelderloos claims that traditional histories whitewash the impact of nonviolence, ignoring the involvement of militants in such movements as the Indian independence movement and the Civil Rights movement and falsely showing Gandhi and King as being their respective movements’ most successful activists.[25] He further argues that nonviolence is generally advocated by privileged white people who expect “oppressed people, many of whom are people of color, to suffer patiently under an inconceivably greater violence, until such time as the Great White Father is swayed by the movement’s demands or the pacifists achieve that legendary ‘critical mass.'”[26]

The efficacy of nonviolence was also challenged by some anti-capitalist protesters advocating a “diversity of tactics” during street demonstrations across Europe and the US following the anti-World Trade Organization protests in Seattle, Washington in 1999. American feminist writer D. A. Clarke, in her essay “A Woman With A Sword,” suggests that for nonviolence to be effective, it must be “practiced by those who could easily resort to force if they chose.” This argument reasons that nonviolent tactics will be of little or no use to groups that are traditionally considered incapable of violence, since nonviolence will be in keeping with people’s expectations for them and thus go unnoticed. Such is the principle of dunamis (from the Greek: δύνάμις or, restrained power).

Niebuhr’s criticism of nonviolence, expressed most clearly in Moral Man and Immoral Society (1932) is based on his view of human nature as innately selfish, an updated version of the Christian doctrine of original sin. Advocates of nonviolence generally do not accept the doctrine of original sin (though Martin Luther King, Jr., did accept a modified version of Niebuhr’s teachings on the subject).[citation needed]

Property damage

One minor, but commonly debated issue is whether the destruction of or damage to non-living objects, as opposed to people is actual “violence”. In much nonviolence literature, including Sharp, various forms of sabotage and damage to property are included within the scope of nonviolent action, while other authors consider destruction or destructive acts of any kind as potentially or actually a form of violence in that it might generate fear or hardship upon the owner or person dependent on that object.

Other authors or activists argue that property destruction can be strategically ineffective if the act provides a pretext for further repression or reinforces state power. Lakey, for instance, argues that the burning of cars during the Paris uprising of 1968 only served to undermine the growing working and middle-class support for the uprising and undermined its political potential.[citation needed]

Sabotage of machinery used in war, either during its production or after, complicates the issue further. Is saving a life by destroying property that will later be used for violence a violent act, or is passively allowing weapons to be used later the violent act (i.e. non-violence that leads to violence)? At a less abstract level, if someone is being beaten with a stick, it is usually not considered an act of violence to take the stick away, but if the stick falls to the ground and you break it, is that still considered a violent action?

In all of these debates it is relevant to consider the question of whether the perpetrator or victim of violence determines what is “violent”. Also, relative power of parties and the type of “weapon” being applied is relevant to the issue. Palestinian children throwing rocks at Israeli tanks as an example cited. Force itself here becomes a relative measure of power and petty violence by the disenfranchised may be violence, but ultimately is not the same as overarching “power” to destroy.

Differing views

The term nonviolence is sometimes used to define different sets of limitations or features, as different actions are considered violent or not violent. In a Wikipedia article on the 2008 Tibetan unrest, a quotation from Dawa Tsering, an Additional Secretary in the Department of Information and International Relations of the Tibetan government-in-exile claims that actions of beating people and setting fire to a building with people holed up inside who end up being burnt to death are both scenarios of nonviolence; though, some Western definitions would clearly clash with their definition of nonviolence which appears to include everything but intentional causing of fatal harm. In an interview with Radio France International Tsering said[27]:

First of all, I must make it clear that the Tibetan (rioters) has been non-violent throughout (the incident). …the Tibetans rioters were beating Han Chinese, but only beating took place. After the beating the Han Chinese were free to flee. Therefore [there were] only beating, no life was harmed. Those who were killed were all results of accidents. …the Han Chinese all went into hiding upstairs. When the Tibetan [rioters] set fire to the buildings, the Han Chinese remained in hiding instead of escaping, the result is that these Han Chinese were all accidentally burnt to death. Those who set and spread the fire, on the other hand, had no idea whatsoever that there were Han Chinese hiding upstairs. Therefore not only were Han Chinese burnt to death, some Tibetans were burnt to death too. Therefore all these incidents were accidents, not murder.

Organizations

See also

Anúncios

 

A Política Sem Legendas

A Política Sem Legendas

     www.malvados.com.br

Malvados - Os Apóstolos

Malvados - Os Apóstolos

 

G20 Official Website

London Summit Official Website

 

What is the G-20

The Group of Twenty (G-20) Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors was established in 1999 to bring together systemically important industrialized and developing economies to discuss key issues in the global economy. The inaugural meeting of the G-20 took place in Berlin, on December 1516, 1999, hosted by German and Canadian finance ministers.

Mandate

The G-20 is an informal forum that promotes open and constructive discussion between industrial and emerging-market countries on key issues related to global economic stability. By contributing to the strengthening of the international financial architecture and providing opportunities for dialogue on national policies, international co-operation, and international financial institutions, the G-20 helps to support growth and development across the globe.

Origins

The G-20 was created as a response both to the financial crises of the late 1990s and to a growing recognition that key emerging-market countries were not adequately included in the core of global economic discussion and governance. Prior to the G-20 creation, similar groupings to promote dialogue and analysis had been established at the initiative of the G-7. The G-22 met at Washington D.C. in April and October 1998. Its aim was to involve non-G-7 countries in the resolution of global aspects of the financial crisis then affecting emerging-market countries. Two subsequent meetings comprising a larger group of participants (G-33) held in March and April 1999 discussed reforms of the global economy and the international financial system. The proposals made by the G-22 and the G-33 to reduce the world economy’s susceptibility to crises showed the potential benefits of a regular international consultative forum embracing the emerging-market countries. Such a regular dialogue with a constant set of partners was institutionalized by the creation of the G-20 in 1999.

Membership

The G-20 is made up of the finance ministers and central bank governors of 19 countries: Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, South Korea, Turkey, the United Kingdom and the United States of America, and also the European Union who is represented by the rotating Council presidency and the European Central Bank. To ensure global economic fora and institutions work together, the Managing Director of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the President of the World Bank, plus the chairs of the International Monetary and Financial Committee and Development Committee of the IMF and World Bank, also participate in G-20 meetings on an ex-officio basis. The G-20 thus brings together important industrial and emerging-market countries from all regions of the world. Together, member countries represent around 90 per cent of global gross national product, 80 per cent of world trade (including EU intra-trade) as well as two-thirds of the world’s population. The G-20’s economic weight and broad membership gives it a high degree of legitimacy and influence over the management of the global economy and financial system.

Achievements

The G-20 has progressed a range of issues since 1999, including agreement about policies for growth, reducing abuse of the financial system, dealing with financial crises and combating terrorist financing. The G-20 also aims to foster the adoption of internationally recognized standards through the example set by its members in areas such as the transparency of fiscal policy and combating money laundering and the financing of terrorism. In 2004, G-20 countries committed to new higher standards of transparency and exchange of information on tax matters. This aims to combat abuses of the financial system and illicit activities including tax evasion.  The G-20 also plays a signficant role in matters concerned with the reform of the international financial architecture. 

The G-20 has also aimed to develop a common view among members on issues related to further development of the global economic and financial system and held an extraordinary meeting in the margins of the 2008 IMF and World Bank annual meetings in recognition of the current economic situation. At this meeting, in accordance with the G-20s core mission to promote open and constructive exchanges between advanced and emerging-market countries on key issues related to global economic stability and growth, the Ministers and Governors discussed the present financial market crisis and its implications for the world economy. They stressed their resolve to work together to overcome the financial turmoil and to deepen cooperation to improve the regulation, supervision and the overall functioning of the worlds financial markets.

Chair

Unlike international institutions such as the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), IMF or World Bank, the G-20 (like the G-7) has no permanent staff of its own. The G-20 chair rotates between members, and is selected from a different regional grouping of countries each year. In 2009 the G-20 chair is the United Kingdom, and in 2010 it will be South Korea.  The chair is part of a revolving three-member management Troika of past, present and future chairs. The incumbent chair establishes a temporary secretariat for the duration of its term, which coordinates the group’s work and organizes its meetings. The role of the Troika is to ensure continuity in the G-20’s work and management across host years.

Former G-20 Chairs

  • 1999-2001 Canada
  • 2002 India
  • 2003 Mexico
  • 2004 Germany
  • 2005 China
  • 2006 Australia
  • 2007 South Africa
  • 2008 Brazil

Meetings and activities

It is normal practice for the G-20 finance ministers and central bank governors to meet once a year. The last meeting of ministers and governors was held in São Paulo, Brazil on 8-9 November 2008.  The ministers’ and governors’ meeting is usually preceded by two deputies’ meetings and extensive technical work. This technical work takes the form of workshops, reports and case studies on specific subjects, that aim to provide ministers and governors with contemporary analysis and insights, to better inform their consideration of policy challenges and options.

Towards the end of 2008  Leaders of the G-20 Countries meet in Washington. See theDeclaration and action plan from the Washington Summit (PDF 72KB) . This meeting remitted follow up work to Finance Ministers. In addition to their November meeting in order to take forward this work in advance of the Leaders summit in London on 2nd April Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors will also meet in March 2009.  A deputies meeting will be held in February 2009 to prepare for the Ministers meeting. 

G-20 Events

Deputies Meeting 1st February 2009

Officials Workshop Financing for Climate Change 13th & 14th February 2009

Deputies Meeting 13th March 2009

Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors Meeting  14th March 2009

Officials Workshop on Global Economy  25th 26th May 2009

Officials Workshop on Sustainable Financing for Development June 2009

Deputies Meeting September 2009

Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors Meeting 7th & 8th November 2009

Interaction with other international organizations

The G-20 cooperates closely with various other major international organizations and fora, as the potential to develop common positions on complex issues among G-20 members can add political momentum to decision-making in other bodies. The participation of the President of the World Bank, the Managing Director of the IMF and the chairs of the International Monetary and Financial Committee and the Development Committee in the G-20 meetings ensures that the G-20 process is well integrated with the activities of the Bretton Woods Institutions. The G-20 also works with, and encourages, other international groups and organizations, such as the Financial Stability Forum, in progressing international and domestic economic policy reforms. In addition, experts from private-sector institutions and non-government organisations are invited to G-20 meetings on an ad hoc basis in order to exploit synergies in analyzing selected topics and avoid overlap.

External communication

The country currently chairing the G-20 posts details of the group’s meetings and work program on a dedicated website. Although participation in the meetings is reserved for members, the public is informed about what was discussed and agreed immediately after the meeting of ministers and governors has ended. After each meeting of ministers and governors, the G-20 publishes a communiqué which records the agreements reached and measures outlined. Material on the forward work program is also made public.

Work programme

O Brasil e a Rússia devem ser os únicos grandes países do mundo a atingir 2050 com um balanço positivo entre crescimento da economia e conservação dos recursos naturais. No caso brasileiro, a matriz energética mais limpa e as florestas dão ao País mais preparo para enfrentar as mudanças climáticas e mais oportunidades de negócios nesse campo. É o que mostra estudo da Universidade de São Paulo (USP), que calculou o balanço dos países em relação às mudanças climáticas. Por Andrea Vialli, do O Estado de S.Paulo, 24/09/2008.

Com base na metodologia contábil empresarial, a pesquisa avaliou o estoque de recursos naturais e o saldo entre as emissões e capturas de gases causadores de efeito estufa em sete países – Brasil, Rússia, Índia, China, Estados Unidos, Alemanha e Japão – até 2050.

“No cenário previsto para 2050, o Brasil terá um superávit de US$ 544 bilhões, patrimônio suficiente para continuar crescendo e ainda contribuir positivamente para a Terra com cotas excedentes de carbono, provenientes de energia limpa e recursos florestais” diz José Roberto Kassai, professor de contabilidade da faculdade de Economia e Administração (FEA/USP) e um dos responsáveis pelo estudo, que envolveu seis pesquisadores da USP.

O mundo, segundo o estudo, terá um déficit econômico-ambiental estimado em US$ 15,3 trilhões, ou 23,7% do PIB mundial. “Só Brasil e Rússia terão condições de continuar crescendo sem maiores pressões sobre o meio ambiente”, avalia. O estudo completo será divulgado em outubro, na Câmara Americana do Comércio (Amcham).

Para Kassai, o balanço positivo para o País pode se traduzir em oportunidades de negócios. “Se o Brasil souber aproveitar esse trunfo, poderá receber volumosos investimentos estrangeiros, tanto para projetos de geração de créditos de carbono quanto em compensações financeiras para manter as florestas intactas.”

LUCROS

Muitas empresas já estão lucrando no mercado de créditos de carbono, que vem ganhando impulso desde 2005. A fabricante de papel Klabin concluiu, em abril, a venda do seu segundo lote de créditos de carbono. A empresa substitui o óleo combustível por gás natural nas caldeiras da fábrica em Piracicaba (SP). A venda dos créditos trouxe receita adicional de 1,5 milhão.

“O gás natural é 26% menos poluente que o óleo” , diz Júlio Nogueira, gerente-corporativo de meio ambiente da Klabin. Segundo ele, novos projetos estão em curso. Na nova fábrica de papel da empresa, inaugurada na semana passada, no Paraná, uma das caldeiras será alimentada só com restos de madeira da própria fábrica e do pólo madeireiro da região. “Esse projeto tem um potencial de gerar créditos equivalentes a até 100 mil toneladas de CO2 por ano.”

A petroquímica Solvay Indupa, em Santo André, faturou US$ 1,4 milhão com uma venda de créditos na semana passada, também proveniente da troca de óleo combustível por gás natural. “Geramos receita extra com uma vantagem ambiental enorme, já que o gás não emite gases de enxofre”, diz Carlos Nardocci, assessor da direção industrial.

O ESTUDO DA USP

Amostra: Sete países que representam 68% do PIB e 50% da população do mundo

Metodologia: Usando a equação básica da contabilidade empresarial (ativo – passivo = patrimônio líquido), os pesquisadores calcularam o patrimônio líquido ambiental de cada país. Ou seja, qual o custo do crescimento econômico em relação à preservação e manutenção dos recursos naturais

Resultados: Somente Brasil e Rússia terão patrimônio líquido ambiental com superávit em 2050. O Brasil terá um superávit de US$ 544 bilhões e a Rússia, de US$ 156 bilhões. Países como os EUA e China serão os maiores deficitários ambientais, com US$ 2,72 trilhões e US$ 3,26 trilhões, respectivamente. O mundo como um todo terá um ‘déficit’ ambiental de US$ 15,3 trilhões

[EcoDebate, 25/09/2008]

SÁBADO, 20 DE DEZEMBRO DE 2008

Uma entrevista com John Hagelin

Por Dennis Hughes, Share Guide Publisher   

John Hagelin, Ph.D. é uma autoridade mundial sobre os fundamentos da consciência humana. Sob a orientação de Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, ele tem dado grandes contribuições na reformulação sistemática da antiga ciência Vêdica da consciência. Perito na teoria do Campo Quântico Unificado, a contribuição científica do Dr. Hagelin no campo das partículas físicas e cosmologia inclui alguns dos mais citados trabalhos em Física.

Ele é o co-desenvolvedor daquilo que é agora considerado a principal candidata a Teoria do Campo Unificado, e dedica-se a aplicar as últimas descobertas científicas acerca da compreensão das leis naturais para o benefício individual e da sociedade. Em 1992, Dr. Hagelin aceitou ser presidente do recentemente formado Partido da Lei Natural (Natural Law Party). Sob a sua liderança, o partido se tornou o primeiro “partido alternativo” a alcançar “status” de partido nacional na Comissão Eleitoral Federal e ter seu candidato presidencial qualificado igualmente aos fundos federais

The Share Guide: Nós todos sabemos que o mundo está num estado frágil hoje, em muitos níveis. Que passos nós podemos dar como indivíduos para promover a saúde de nosso planeta?

Dr. John Hagelin: O impacto de nossas ações, individualmente e coletivamente, é inconcebivelmente vasto. Nós todos podemos apreciar, em alguma extensão, o impacto ambiental do comportamento poluidor. Mas, baseado naquilo que sabemos sobre o universe, o verdadeiro impacto de nossas ações é amplo demais. Por exemplo, a teoria do caos estabelece que nossos muitos minutes de ação podem ter incalculavelmente largos efeitos. Isso coloca uma grande carga de responsabilidade em todos. Exercitar a consideração do senso comum e tomar cuidados com nosso ambiente é um bom começo. Mas se nós realmente queremos proteger nosso planeta contra os efeitos negatives do comportamento humano, devemos fazer nosso pensamento e ação, espontaneamente, ficar de acordo com a Lei Natural. Devemos alinhar nosso comportamento com a Inteligência Universal que governa o universo e sustenta milhões de espécies na Terra. Felizmente, é natural um comportamento espontâneo alimentador da vida, a fisiologia do cérebro humano dificilmente etá conectada à experiência da Iluminação (os os mais elevados estados da consciência em que nós diretamente experimentamos e nos tornamos conectados com a Inteligência Cósmica, ou Campo Unificado na terminologia da física moderna. O desenvolvimento de nosso potencial cerebral total e a resultante expansão da compreensão humana como Ser Universal, devem ser o alvo da Educação hoje.

The Share Guide: Campo Unificado é outro termo para a Consciência Cósmica?

Dr. John Hagelin: O Campo Unificado é o mais profundo nível da realidade física descoberto pela Ciência. É um campo universal de inteligência da Natureza que governa o vasto universo em perfeita ordem. Consciência Cósmica é o estado de Iluminação, um estado de consciência humana em que a mente individual experimenta (e se identifica com) a inteligência universal. Nesse estado, o ego individual expande-se para se tornar o Cosmos. Todos os indivíduos são indivíduos Cósmicos e suas ações são suportadas espontaneamente por toda a vida.

The Share Guide: Estou interessado na conexão entre a meditação individual e o Campo Unificado. Como isso se dá, em relação com a prática de meditação diária? E como isso se transforma em criação de paz no mundo?

Dr. John Hagelin: A conexão é simples. Durante a meditação, a consciência rapidamente se expande para uma experiência de consciência universal (o Campo Unificado). A consciência individual se identifica temporariamente com a consciência universal no mais simples estado de consciência, o estado que os fisiologistas chamam “pura consciência”. Entretanto, nem todas as técnicas de meditação atingem essa experiência de pura consciência. Minhas observações foram com práticas de meditação que facilitam esta experiência fundamental de uma maneira eficaz e eficiente. Entre essas práticas está a Meditação Transcendental (MT) desenvolvida por Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, extensivamente procurada e amplamente praticada. Ela é segura, altamente eficaz e universal; funciona para pessoas de todas as convicções religiosas e culturais.

The Share Guide: Na palestra que você deu ano passado em São Francisco, você disse que “grupos de meditação agora são uma tecnologia comprovada para a paz, ao mesmo tempo em que nossa tecnologia de armamento pode assegurar a destruição”. Por favor explique!

Dr. Hagelin:

Mais de 50 estudos, publicados nos mais apreciados jornais científicos, têm demonstrado repetidamente que grupos de meditação podem vencer a violência e a guerra, em áreas de conflito. Neutraliza as tensões religiosas, étnicas e políticas em seu início, que são o combustível social do conflito. Já é demonstrado que previne o terrorismo global e reduz o crime, a violência doméstica e todas as negatividades nascidas do estresse social agudo.

The Share Guide: Muitos de nós entendemos que a meditação desenvolve nossa invencibilidade natural às idas e vindas de nossa vida diária. Mas desse estado de calma, como funciona o “princípio da proporcionalidade” do grupo de meditação?

Dr. Hagelin:

Quando dois alto-falantes próximos emitem o mesmo som, estas ondas sonoras se somam construtivamente. Eles produzem um volume equivalente a quatro alto-falantes (o quadrado do número de alto-falantes que são dois). Este é um princípio universal de comportamento de onda. Quando uma ondulação no Campo Unificado é gerada por indivíduos em proximidade física íntima, o poder das ondas combinadas deles/delas cresce como o quadrado do número de indivíduos. Isto é o que a pesquisa confirma. Por causa disto, grupos relativamente pequenos podem ter um impacto social enorme. Realmente, 8,000 indivíduos meditando juntos por períodos extensos podem transformar eventos mundiais. Isto tem sido rigorosamente demonstrado.

The Share Guide: Eu sei que você está trabalhando em um plano para colocar isto em ação. Por favor discuta o programa em que milhares de pandits vão meditar durante o ano todo na Índia!

Dr. Hagelin: 8.000 especialistas em meditação, em dedicação exclusiva, podem mudar o destino de civilização. Isto tem sido amplamente demonstrado. Estamos aumentando o número para 40.000 apenas por um fator de segurança.Um pandit védico é um meditador que, além de sua prática de Meditação Transcendental pratica o Vôo Iogue, práticas avançadas de promoção da paz que são tecnologias avançadas da antiga sabedoria Vêdica conhecidas como Yagyas. Estes Yagyas reforçam o impacto da paz mundial obtida pela meditação. Tenho levantado fundos para estabelecer esse grupo permanente de 8.000 a 40.000 de meditadores profissionais, em dedicação exclusiva, na Índia, onde é muito rentável. Obtivemos cerca de US$ 90 milhões, que é suficiente para sustentar quase 8.000 pessoas. Uma vez conseguindo reunir e treinar esse grupo, prevejo que vislumbraremos um mundo totalmente novo. Espero consegui-lo até Primavera de 2003. Rezo para que América e o mundo possam evitar qualquer confronto desastroso até lá.

The Share Guide: O que é o Vôo Iogue?

Dr. Hagelin: É uma técnica avançada de Meditação Transcendental derivado do Yoga Sutra de Patañjali. Durante a prática, o corpo, involuntariamente, começa a saltar, a partir da posição de lótus, num esforço espontâneo para voar. Historicamente, essa prática tem sustentação na habilidade corporal de flutuar e voar. É praticada hoje porque pesquisas demonstram que essa é a mais poderosa técnica de redução do estresse e conflito social. É uma tecnologia para a paz mundial.

The Share Guide: O que você quer dizer quando diz que a meditação é um quarto estado da consciência, distinto dos três estados conhecidos: vigília, sonho e sono? E, por favor, fale sobre o quinto estado, consciência transcendental ou iluminação!

Dr. Hagelin: Pura Consciência, a experiência direta do Campo Unificado, é um quarto estado de consciência, fisiologicamente e subjetivamente diferente da vigília, sonho e sono. Essa descoberto e publicado pela primeira vez em 1970, por Robert Keith Wallace e colaboradores. Mas, em primeiro lugar, essa experiência é um estado temporário. Com a prática regular de meditação, a experiência de consciência universal se torna permanentemente estabelecida, de forma que a percebemos durante a vigília, o sonho e o sono. Isso, então, constitui um quinto estado da consciência humana, tradicionalmente conhecido como Iluminação. Neste estado de 24 horas de felicidade, todas as ações estão em plena sintonia com a Lei Natural, que espontaneamente dá suporte à vida.

The Share Guide: Muitas pessoas são céticas quanto ao conceito de que grupos de meditação têm um efeito na paz mundial, e podem não aceitar os estudos citados em sua lista de pesquisas. Como você responde a esse ceticismo?

Dr. Hagelin: Não se trata de mera opinião. O método científico possui métodos incontestáveis de estabelecer fatos científicos, através de rigorosa experimentação. A eficácia de grupos de meditação em reduzir o crime e a guerra tem sido extensivamente estudado e rigorosamente estabelecido, mais do que qualquer fenômeno na história da ciência social. É um fato científico; não existe nenhum espaço para argumentação!

The Share Guide: Como nós percebemos, quando meditando, que não estamos conectados com nosso Self e sim com a Consciência Cósmica?

Dr. Hagelin: A experiência de Pura Consciência é auto-evidente e óbvia. Tal como acontece quando você desperta e sabe que está acordado. Se você não está absolutamente certo que você está acordado, existem chances de você estar sonhando. Da mesma forma, se você não tiver certeza de que está experimentando a Pura e Ilimitada Consciência, você provavelmente não a estará. Pode ser o momento de tentar um sistema mais eficaz de meditação.

The Share Guide: Você recomenda o conceito de “por entre parênteses” na sua atividade diária períodos de meditação de manhã e à noite. Isso lhe permite relaxar na sua natureza eterna por meio da meditação e desempenhar ações em todo o mundo deste ponto vantajoso.

Dr. Hagelin: Sim, é uma rotina maravilhosa. A experiência regular da Pura Consciência é necessária para estabilizá-la, através disso, alcançar a Iluminação.

The Share Guide: Você tem sido candidato presidencial. No livro ‘Uma Razão para Votar’, você é totalmente otimista quando declara que o maior épico da historia Americana será ‘a história de um povo que exigiu de seu governo, e de seu país, a partir de um ponto bem estabelecido, uma auto-serviência da oligarquia político industrial e de seus patrocinadores corporativos que, acima de tudo, procuram preservar seus status quo. Você também declara que essa é a ‘história de um povo que retorna a seu país pelos princípios da Lei Natural sobre a qual foi fundado’. Mas muitos de nós, onde quer que olhemos, vemos que nossos líderes agem fora da Lei Natural. Como nós, como indivíduos, podemos mudar a maré dos atuais acontecimentos que conduzem à degradação social e ambiental?

Dr. Hagelin: Infelizmente, como nação, tendemos a ter o governo que merecemos. É justamente o karma, especialmente numa democracia, onde nós é que elegemos o governo. Por isso, não podemos esperar um governo melhor a menos e até que despertemos as massas. É nisso que eu estou pessoalmente focalizado hoje, sobre o aumento da consciência coletiva da nação e do mundo. Isto pode soar como uma tarefa impossível, mas é mais fácil do que parece. Não é realmente necessário esclarecer a todos, ou mesmo alcançar a todos. Podemos alçar nosso poder, por intermédio daqueles que estejam acordados, podendo exercer uma influência desproporcional sobre a sociedade. Este é o poder da meditação coletiva. Grupos com experiência no Campo Unificado, de nossa realidade cósmica comum, potentemente estimulam este campo universal e têm um profundo efeito sobre o despertar de todos. Ele criam indomáveis ondas de positividade e paz. Cada grupo de meditação, repetidamente, demostrou reprimir a violência social e até mesmo a guerra aberta em áreas de conflito, como o Oriente Médio. Para mais informação sobre isto, vocês podem ler o excelente livro ‘Paz Permanente’ (Permanent Peace) de Robert M. Oates ou visitar o seu site http://www.createpermanentpeace.com.

The Share Guide: Você disse, em sua palestra de São Francisco, que nós devemos exercitar nossa Criatividade Cultural em nossa influência política. Para isso teremos que, na esfera política, aderir a um partido alternativo como o Partido Verde ou o Partido da Lei Natural, em vez de tentar reconstruir o Partido Democrático. O livro ‘Destruindo o Partido’, de Ralph Nader, mostra o quanto as probabilidades estão amontoadas contra esses partidos, mas eu tenho ouvido você dizer repetidamente que ‘os partidos alternativos empurram a nação para novas direções’. Você poderia cuidadosamente elaborar isso?

Dr. Hagelin: Noventa por cento de todas as idéias que nós gostamos em nossa democracia, originalmente, vieram de partidos alternativos. Esses partidos têm um poder que é desproporcional ao seus tamanhos. O Partido Democrático, durante décadas de liderança na Casa branca e no Senado, tem demonstrado a sua fidelidade a interesses particulares. Hoje, é demonstrado sua impotência em face a um Partido Republicano que intimida pela guerra. Mas a militância política sem uma profunda transformação em nossa consciência nacional, é também insuficiente para efetuar mudanças substanciais. Nós necessitamos mirar para a causa base da inércia e corrupção na política. Temos que elevar a consciência coletiva da nação.

The Share Guide: Existem outros partidos alternatives sérios além do Partido Verde e do Partido da Lei Natural? E o Partido Libertário e o Partido Reformista?

Dr. Hagelin: Esses partidos têm idéias que merecem ser ouvidas. De todos esses partidos, entretanto, o Partido da Lei Natural tem a mais completa e abrangente plataforma de estudos e soluções sustentáveis em harmonia com a Lei Natural,acrescido de um elenco de ativistas dedicados verdadeiramente maravilhoso. (Para mais informações visite http://www.naturallaw.org)

The Share Guide: Quais são suas sugestões de referência (livros e websites) e como nós podemos ficar informados do atual trabalho de meditação em grupo?

Dr. Hagelin: Meu livro, Manual for a Perfect Government, é conciso e ainda suficientemente compreensível. Recomendo um exame minucioso do Projeto para a Perpétua Paz Mundial, no website http://www.maharishi.invincibledefence.org. E, como mencionado antes, recomendo o livro Permanent Peace em http://www.createpermanentpeace.com.

Veja também dois vídeos selecionados de John Hagelin.