Arquivo de março 4, 2009

“On God” begins with some deceptively simple definitions of terms that would be familiar to any seventeenth century philosopher. “By substance I understand what is in itself and is conceived through itself”; “By attribute I understand what the intellect perceives of a substance, as constituting its essence”; “By God I understand a being absolutely infinite, i.e., a substance consisting of an infinity of attributes, of which each one expresses an eternal and infinite essence.” The definitions of Part One are, in effect, simply clear concepts that ground the rest of his system. They are followed by a number of axioms that, he assumes, will be regarded as obvious and unproblematic by the philosophically informed (“Whatever is, is either in itself or in another”; “From a given determinate cause the effect follows necessarily”). From these, the first proposition necessarily follows, and every subsequent proposition can be demonstrated using only what precedes it. (References to the Ethics will be by part (I-V), proposition (p), definition (d), scholium (s) and corollary (c).)

In propositions one through fifteen of Part One, Spinoza presents the basic elements of his picture of God. God is the infinite, necessarily existing (that is, uncaused), unique substance of the universe. There is only one substance in the universe; it is God; and everything else that is, is in God.

Proposition 1: A substance is prior in nature to its affections.

Proposition 2: Two substances having different attributes have nothing in common with one another. (In other words, if two substances differ in nature, then they have nothing in common).

Proposition 3: If things have nothing in common with one another, one of them cannot be the cause of the other.

Proposition 4: Two or more distinct things are distinguished from one another, either by a difference in the attributes [i.e., the natures or essences] of the substances or by a difference in their affections [i.e., their accidental properties].

Proposition 5: In nature, there cannot be two or more substances of the same nature or attribute.

Proposition 6: One substance cannot be produced by another substance.

Proposition 7: It pertains to the nature of a substance to exist.

Proposition 8: Every substance is necessarily infinite.

Proposition 9: The more reality or being each thing has, the more attributes belong to it.

Proposition 10: Each attribute of a substance must be conceived through itself.

Proposition 11: God, or a substance consisting of infinite attributes, each of which expresses eternal and infinite essence, necessarily exists. (The proof of this proposition consists simply in the classic “ontological proof for God’s existence”. Spinoza writes that “if you deny this, conceive, if you can, that God does not exist. Therefore, by axiom 7 [‘If a thing can be conceived as not existing, its essence does not involve existence’], his essence does not involve existence. But this, by proposition 7, is absurd. Therefore, God necessarily exists, q.e.d.”)

Proposition 12: No attribute of a substance can be truly conceived from which it follows that the substance can be divided.

Proposition 13: A substance which is absolutely infinite is indivisible.

Proposition 14: Except God, no substance can be or be conceived.

In: Standford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Absolute Certainty and the Cartesian Circle

Recall that in the First Meditation Descartes supposed that an evil demon was deceiving him. So as long as this supposition remains in place, there is no hope of gaining any absolutely certain knowledge. But he was able to demonstrate God’s existence from intuitively grasped premises, thereby providing, a glimmer of hope of extricating himself from the evil demon scenario. The next step is to demonstrate that God cannot be a deceiver. At the beginning of the Fourth Meditation, Descartes claims that the will to deceive is “undoubtedly evidence of malice or weakness” so as to be an imperfection. But, since God has all perfections and no imperfections, it follows that God cannot be a deceiver. For to conceive of God with the will to deceive would be to conceive him to be both having no imperfections and having one imperfection, which is impossible; it would be like trying to conceive of a mountain without a valley. This conclusion, in addition to God’s existence, provides the absolutely certain foundation Descartes was seeking from the outset of the Meditations. It is absolutely certain because both conclusions (namely that God exists and that God cannot be a deceiver) have themselves been demonstrated from immediately grasped and absolutely certain intuitive truths.

This means that God cannot be the cause of human error, since he did not create humans with a faculty for generating them, nor could God create some being, like an evil demon, who is bent on deception. Rather, humans are the cause of their own errors when they do not use their faculty of judgment correctly. Second, God’s non-deceiving nature also serves to guarantee the truth of all clear and distinct ideas. So God would be a deceiver, if there were a clear and distinct idea that was false, since the mind cannot help but believe them to be true. Hence, clear and distinct ideas must be true on pain of contradiction. This also implies that knowledge of God’s existence is required for having any absolutely certain knowledge. Accordingly, atheists, who are ignorant of God’s existence, cannot have absolutely certain knowledge of any kind, including scientific knowledge.

But this veridical guarantee gives rise to a serious problem within the Meditations, stemming from the claim that all clear and distinct ideas are ultimately guaranteed by God’s existence, which is not established until the Third Meditation. This means that those truths reached in the Second Meditation, such as “I exist” and “I am a thinking thing,” and those principles used in the Third Meditation to conclude that God exists, are not clearly and distinctly understood, and so they cannot be absolutely certain. Hence, since the premises of the argument for God’s existence are not absolutely certain, the conclusion that God exists cannot be certain either. This is what is known as the “Cartesian Circle,” because Descartes’ reasoning seems to go in a circle in that he needs God’s existence for the absolute certainty of the earlier truths and yet he needs the absolute certainty of these earlier truths to demonstrate God’s existence with absolute certainty.

Descartes’ response to this concern is found in the Second Replies. There he argues that God’s veridical guarantee only pertains to the recollection of arguments and not the immediate awaRenéss of an argument’s clarity and distinctness currently under consideration. Hence, those truths reached before the demonstration of God’s existence are clear and distinct when they are being attended to but cannot be relied upon as absolutely certain when those arguments are recalled later on. But once God’s existence has been demonstrated, the recollection of the clear and distinct perception of the premises is sufficient for absolutely certain and, therefore, perfect knowledge of its conclusion (see also the Fifth Meditation at AT VII 69-70: CSM II XXX). 

In: Internet Encyclopedia of Phylosophy

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Esse é o nome do partido comunista que governa Taiwan. O líder chinês na Guerra do Ópio foi general do partido. Logo após a “reconquista” da China contra os Inglêses, quando ingressaram no século da vergonha, com a perda de Hong-Kong para a inglaterra, muitos migraram e constituiram Taiwan. Quem quiser ler mais, sugiro wiki em português e wiki em inglês. A definição abaixo é do Dicionário Político, mantido pela Marxists Internet Archive.

O Kuomintang (Partido Nacionalista do Povo) foi fundado na China em 25 de agosto de 1912, teve sua origem na “Liga Revolucionária Unida” (Tongmenghui) fundada em 20 de agosto de 1905, que por sua vez foi originada da “Sociedade para o Despertar da China” (Xingzhonghui) fundada em 24 de novembro de 1894. Sun Yatsen esteve à frente da fundação de todas estas organizações. Após a sua morte, assumiu a liderança do Kuomintang Chiang Kai-shek.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Beth Shalom B’nai Zaken Ethiopian Hebrew Congregation Web site’s logo

Capers C. Funnye Jr. (pronounced fun-AY; born c. 1952) is a Jewish African American who is the head rabbi of the mostly African-American 200 member Beth Shalom B’nai Zaken Ethiopian Hebrew Congregation of ChicagoIllinois, as assisted by Rabbis Avraham Ben Israel and Joshua V. Salter.[1] He is also the first African-American member of the Chicago Board of Rabbis, serves on the boards of the Jewish Council on Urban Affairs and the American Jewish Congress of the Midwest, and is active in the Institute for Jewish and Community Research, which reaches out to black Jewishcommunities outside the United States, such as the Beta Israel in Ethiopia and the Igbo Jews in Nigeria.[2][3] The organization was founded by Funnye in 1985 as a direct offshoot of Wentworth Arthur Matthew‘s Commandment Keepers.[4][5] He was ordained a rabbi by the Israelite Rabbinical Academy in 1985.[6] In 1996, Funnye was the only official black rabbi in the Chicago area recognized by the greater Jewish community.[7] He earned a Bachelor of Arts degree in Jewish Studies and Master of Science in Human Service Administration from the Spertus Institute of Jewish Studies in Chicago.[8]

Funnye is the first cousin once removed of Michelle Obama, the wife of 44th U.S. President Barack Obama.[9]

Like most of his congregation, Rabbi Funnye was not born into Judaism; he adopted the religion later in life. He was raised as a Methodist but, dissatisfied, investigated other religions including Islam, before converting to Judaism, feeling a sense of intellectual and spiritual liberation in the constant examination that he saw the religion encouraging.[3]

The congregation was started by Rabbi Horace Hasan from BombayIndia, in 1918 as the Ethiopian Hebrew Settlement Workers Association. Along with African-Americans, members include Hispanics and whites who were born Jews, as well as formerChristians and Muslims. As is traditional with Judaism, they do not seek converts, and members must study Judaism for a year before undergoing a traditional conversion requiring men to be ritually circumcised and women to undergo ritual immersion in amikvah. The synagogue is “somewhere between Conservative and Modern Orthodox” with distinctive African-American influences; while men and women sit separately as in Orthodox synagogues, a chorus sings spirituals to the beat of a drum. It is currently housed in a former Ashkenazi synagogue in the Marquette Park neighborhood.[3]

Although the idea of African American Jews is sometimes met with skepticism, Rabbi Funnye says, “I am a Jew, and that breaks through all color and ethnic barriers.”[3]

Rabbi Funnye is a co-founder, with Michelle Stein-Evers and Robin Washington, of the Alliance of Black Jews, which formed in 1995.[10]

ADEMAIS, recebi este email, mas que me fez verificar a informação… 

Michelle Obama, mulher do candidato democrata à Presidência dos EUA, é prima do rabino negro mais conhecido do país, Capers Funnye.

“O parentesco dá um toque inesperado à tão analisada relação entre Barack Obama e os judeus nessa campanha. Por um lado, organizadores, eleitores e doadores judeus, inclusive de algumas das famílias mais ricas e proeminentes de Chicago, desempenharam um papel essencial na ascensão política de Obama. Mas o Senador por Illinois lutou para superar as suspeitas de alguns grupos da comunidade judaica, inclusive o ceticismo a respeito de sua posição sobre Israel e os rumores, desacreditados mas persistentes, de que ele é, em segredo, muçulmano”, escreve Anthony Weiss no jornal The Forward (uma tradição do jornalismo norte-americano, criado em abril de 1897 como jornal diário em idish). A relação familiar, acrescenta Weiss, tinha passado praticamente desapercebida até agora.

Funnye é o primeiro negro a integrar o Chicago Board of Rabbis e participa também do Jewish Council on Urban Affairs e do American Jewish Congress of the Midwest. É bastante ativo e gosta de falar sobre a importância da aceitação de sua sinagoga pelos outros judeus dos EUA (aproximadamente 5 milhões e 300 mil, a maioria de ascendência asquenazita) . Sua congregação, a Beth Shalom B’nai Zaken Ethiopian Hebrew Congregation, tem mais de 200 membros, quase todos negros, e foi fundada em 1918. Ela não é uma congregação apenas negra, e entre seus membros há também brancos judeus.

O rabino nasceu numa família metodista e se converteu ao judaísmo sob a supervisão de rabinos conservadores e ortodoxos. A maioria dos membros da congregação também se converteu na idade adulta. Apesar da expressão “Ethiopian Hebrew” no seu nome, a congregação não tem nenhuma relação com os judeus etíopes acolhidos por Israel nas últimas décadas. Ela é descrita como um misto de conservadora e ortodoxa moderna, com alguma influência afro-americana (um coral canta spirituals, com acompanhamento de percussão). Homens e mulheres sentam-se separadamente.”