Posts com Tag ‘guerra do ópio’

By Jason Simpkins
Managing Editor 
Money Morning

Emerging markets, led by China and Russia, plan to jointly challenge the U.S. dollar’s role as the world’s sole benchmark currency at the April 2 meeting of the Group 20 nations – a move that underscores the currency’s weakness and fading support around the world.

The creation of a new reserve currency to be issued by international financial institutions was one of the measures Russia proposed to the G20 on March 16, ahead of the group’s summit next week.

Russian authorities previously met with financial ministers and central bankers from China, Brazil and India on March 13. The group issued its first-ever joint communiqué ahead of the G20 finance ministers last Saturday, March 14.  The joint statement did not mention a new currency like Russia proposed, but an unidentified source told Reutersthat the issue was discussed.

Chinese policymakers confirmed as much today (Monday) when Zhou Xiaochuan, Governor of the People’s Bank of China, released an essay entitled “Reform of the International Monetary System” on the BOC’s Web site.

Without explicitly mentioning to the U.S. dollar, Zhou asked what kind of international reserve currency does the world needs to secure global financial stability and facilitate economic growth.

According to Zhou, the dollar’s unique status as the world’s primary currency reserve has resulted in increasingly frequent financial crises ever since the collapse of the Bretton Woods system in 1971.

“The price is becoming increasingly higher, not only for the users, but also for the issuers of the reserve currencies,” Zhou said. “Although crisis may not necessarily be an intended result of the issuing authorities, it is an inevitable outcome of the institutional flaws.”

Zhou called for the “re-establishment of a new and widely accepted reserve currency with a stable valuation” to replace the U.S. dollar – a credit-based national currency. The central bank governor noted that the International Monetary Fund’s Special Drawing Right (SDR) should be given special consideration. 

Created by the IMF in 1969 to support the Bretton Woods fixed exchange rate system, the SDR was redefined in 1973 as a basket of currencies. Today the SDR consists of the euro, Japanese yen, pound sterling, and U.S. dollar.

“The SDR has the features and potential to act as a super-sovereign reserve currency,” said Zhou. “Moreover, an increase in SDR allocation would help the Fund address its resources problem and the difficulties in the voice and representation reform. Therefore, efforts should be made to push forward a SDR allocation.”

Zhou proposed the following actions to move the SDR in a direction that could better accommodate demand for a more stable reserve currency:

  • Set up a settlement system between the SDR and other currencies. Therefore, the SDR, which is now only used between governments and international institutions, could become a widely accepted means of payment in international trade and financial transactions.
  • Actively promote the use of the SDR in international trade, commodities pricing, investment and corporate bookkeeping. This will help enhance the role of the SDR, and will effectively reduce the fluctuation of prices of assets denominated in national currencies and related risks.
  • Create financial assets denominated in the SDR to increase its appeal. The introduction of SDR-denominated securities, which is being studied by the IMF, will be a good start.
  • Further improve the valuation and allocation of the SDR. The basket of currencies forming the basis for SDR valuation should be expanded to include currencies of all major economies, and the GDP may also be included as a weight. The allocation of the SDR can be shifted from a purely calculation-based system to one backed by real assets, such as a reserve pool, to further boost market confidence in its value.

  
Many analysts view the campaign by emerging markets for a new reserve currency as an attempt by to gain more control in the IMF, which has traditionally been dominated by richer countries. But the new currency campaign is also further evidence that Beijing is becoming less and less comfortable with its large holdings of U.S. assets, namely Treasuries. 

Concerns about the dollar losing value have escalated in recent weeks as the U.S. Federal Reserve pursues a policy of quantitative easing in an effort of taming the financial crisis.

We have lent a huge amount of money to the United States,” Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao said earlier this month. “Of course, we are concerned about the safety of our assets. To be honest, I am definitely a little bit worried. I request the U.S. to maintain its good credit, to honor its promises and to guarantee the safety of China’s assets.”

China is the world leader with $2 trillion in foreign currency holdings. About half of that is held in U.S. Treasuries and notes issued by other government-affiliated agencies, such as Fannie Mae (FNM) and Freddie Mac (FRE).

Half of Russia’s currency reserves – the world’s third-largest stockpile – consist of U.S. dollars, as well.

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Abaixo trecho muitíssimo interessante de um texto sobre a complexidade do debate em torno da  “indústria das drogas”.  Os autores são do Instituto Giovanni Falcone. Vai de Kuomintang, comunismo, CIA à Bush e FHC. Vale o clique.  Além disso o site é rico em conteúdo de boa qualidade. 

 

www.ibgf.org.br

Por IBGF/WFM – “Bodes Expiatórios – usuários como culpados”

“Não são novos a cumplicidade e o incentivo da CIA aos traficantes de drogas e de armas de fogo. Nos anos 40 e 50, a CIA apoiou o chamado Exército Nacionalista Chinês (Kuomintang), que combateu ferozmente os maoístas. Os recursos do Kuomintang provinham de “taxas” cobradas pela produção e pelo tráfico do ópio. Portanto, procedimento igual ao empregado, na Colômbia, pelas guerrilhas e pelos paramilitares.

Nos anos 60, a CIA apoiou, no Laos, a guerrilha anticomunista conduzida pelo Patet Lao e as ações eram financiadas pelo comércio ilegal do ópio. A mesma CIA, nos anos 80, consentiu a venda de crack nos guetos pobres de Los Angeles e os temporários traficantes nicaragüenses repassavam os lucros às milícias anti-sandinistas. Esse episódio, denunciado no Congresso americano, foi apurado pela própria CIA e arquivado sem satisfações.

No Peru, Vladimiro Montesinos, ministro e agente da CIA, sustentou a ditadura Fujimori, apesar de ser apontado como traficante internacional de drogas. E Montesinos só se complicou quando vendeu armas para a guerrilha colombiana e acabou descoberto pela própria CIA.

O militarizado Plano Colômbia, rebatizado por Bush de Iniciativa Regional Andina, tem um rico budget destinado à erradicação química da folha de coca, matéria-prima para o preparo do cloridrato de cocaína e fonte de sustentação das guerrilhas colombianas de esquerda. Na invasiva política de drogas dos EUA, o tratamento dado atualmente ao Afeganistão, maior produtor de ópio, difere substancialmente do conferido à Colômbia, maior produtora de cocaína. Nos anos 80, o então presidente americano Ronald Reagan tornou-se famoso ao declarar “Guerra contra as Drogas Internacionais”. Para justificá-la, culpou os países que permitiam a oferta e prometeu, manu militare, erradicar as áreas de cultivo e combater os traficantes, sem fronteiras. Na verdade, Reagan usou a droga como fonte geradora de capitais para contrastar o “perigo comunista”. E também como pretexto para controlar territórios e violar soberanias.

Diante de tantas ambigüidades, não se deve estranhar o fato de os norte-americanos continuarem a ser os maiores consumidores de drogas do planeta. Pior é que essa oportunista política de culpas, militarizada e criminalizante, acabou sendo imposta, em 1961, aos Estados membros da ONU, por meio da ainda vigorante Convenção Única sobre Entorpecentes.”

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 The Blue Sky with a White Sun (Chinese青天白日pinyin: Qīng tīan bái rì) serves as the design for the party flag and emblem of the Kuomintang (KMT), the canton of the flag of the Republic of China, the national emblem of the Republic of China (ROC), and as the naval jack of the ROC Navy.

In the “Blue Sky with a White Sun” symbol, the twelve rays of the white Sun representing the twelve months and the twelve traditional Chinese hours (時辰 shíchen), each of which corresponds to two modern hours (小時 xiǎoshí, literal meaning: “little shi“) and symbolizes the spirit of progress.

The “Blue Sky with a White Sun” flag was originally designed by Lu Hao-tung, a “martyr” of the Republican revolution. He presented his design to represent the revolutionary army at the inauguration of the Society for Regenerating China, an anti-Qing society in Hong Kong, on February 211895. In 1905, Sun Yat-sen added a red field to the design to create what would become the current flag of the Republic of China.

During the Wuchang Uprising in 1911 that heralded the Republic of China, the various revolutionary armies had different flags. Lu Hao-tung’s “Blue Sky with a White Sun” flag was used in the provinces of Guangdong,GuangxiYunnan, and Guizhou, while the “18-Star Flag“, “Five-Colored Flag“, and other designs were used elsewhere.

 National Emblem of the Republic of China

When the government of the Republic of China was established on January 11912, The “Five-Colored” flag was adopted as the national flag, but Sun Yat-sen did not consider its design appropriate, reasoning that horizontal order implied a hierarchy or class like that which existed during dynastic times. Thus, when he established a rival government inGuangzhou in 1917, he brought over the “Blue Sky with a White Sun” flag for the party and the “Blue Sky, White Sun, and a Wholly Red Earth” (then the naval ensign) for the nation. This officially became the national flag in 1928, and continued to serve as the naval ensign; the “Blue Sky with a White Sun” flag was adopted as the naval jack at the same time.

In the early years of the Republic, under the KMT’s political tutelage, the KMT party flag shared the same prominence as the ROC flag. A common wall display consisted of the KMT flag perched on the left and the ROC flag perched on the right, each tilted at an angle with a portrait of National Father Sun Yat-sen displayed in the center.

Since the ROC government moved to Taiwan and especially in the years since the end of martial law the KMT flag has lost some of its prominence. However, it is still frequently seen in political rallies and other meetings of KMT and the pan-blue coalition.

The flag and the KMT party emblem made news during the ROC legislative elections of 2004, when President Chen Shui-bian suggested that the Kuomintang’s flag and party emblem violated the ROC’s National Emblem Law for being too similar to the national emblem of the Republic of China. Chen stated that the law forbids the ROC’s emblem and flag from being used by non-governmental organizations and warned that the KMT would have three months to change its flag and emblem if his Democratic Progressive Party won a majority of seats in the legislature. The KMT responded by asking the government to change the national emblem, saying the KMT emblem existed first. However, the pan-green coalition failed to win a majority, and Chen took no action for the remainder of his presidency.

Party Emblem of the Kuomintang

Ocorreram duas Guerras do Ópio: a primeira no período 1839-1842 e a segunda no período 1856-1860. Foram guerras entre a China e a Grã-Bretanha. A primeira guerra do ópio foi iniciada pela Grã-Bretanha usando como motivo o combate feito pelo imperador e líder chinês ao contrabando de ópio com a prisão, expulsão dos traficantes e apreensão do ópio contrabandeado. O contrabando de ópio era praticado principalmente pelos comerciantes ingleses situados em Cantão. Com a vitória da Inglaterra a China foi forçada a assinar o Tratado de Nanquim em 1842 pelo qual foi humilhantemente submetida a franquear ao comércio com a Inglaterra cinco portos e a extinguir a sua firma comercial encarregada de efetuar o comércio com os empresários ocidentais e pagar uma indenização de guerra e entregar ao domínio inglês a ilha de Hong-Kong, além de permitir que em cada um dos cinco portos permanecesse fundeado um navio de guerra inglês.
A segunda guerra do ópio teve como motivo o fato de oficiais chineses terem revistado um navio de bandeira inglesa. Nesta segunda campanha a Grã-Bretanha teve como aliada a França. Com a derrota da China foi imposto o Tratado de Tianjin que obrigou a China a abrir mais 11 portos ao comércio com as potências ocidentais, a garantir liberdade de movimentação aos mercadores europeus e aos missionários cristãos. de Marxist Internet Archive

A Guerra do Ópio, Sun Yat-sen e os Três Princípios do Povo (16/11)

Uma boa leitura para os dias que correm é sobre a formação da China moderna. Invejam a prosperidade e o crescimento chineses, mas as vitórias atuais da China são resultado de um longo processo de consolidação do Estado nacional. Se você tiver tempo, saiba o que era a China do século 19 lendo sobre as Guerras do Ópio. E conheça um pouco do fundador da China moderna, o nacionalista Sun Yat-sen, com os seus Três Princípios do Povo. São o direito à soberania, à democracia e ao bem-estar. Note que eles se encaixam perfeitamente no que poderia ser um programa de governo progressista para o Brasil. Do Blog do Alon

Recomendo a leitura da matéria “A Nova Guerra do Ópio”, falando de Irã, Afeganistão, Russia e EUA, do Le Monde diplomatique Brasil. Clique aqui para ler o texto completo.

 

“Situado na rota do ópio, entre os campos de papoula do Afeganistão e o mercado europeu da heroína, o Irã está numa verdadeira guerra contra o tráfico. Mas a repressão é quase inútil. Única solução: estimular lavouras alternativas nos campos afegãos”. Cédric Gouverneur