Arquivo da categoria ‘Epicurious’

Ambrosia from wikipedia

Publicado: agosto 4, 2010 por Yogi em Culture, Epicurious, History, Philosophy, Tudo
This article is about the food or drink of the gods. For other uses, see Ambrosia (disambiguation).

In ancient Greek mythologyambrosia (Greek: ἀμβροσία) is sometimes the food, sometimes the drink, of the Greek gods (or demigods), often depicted as conferring ageless immortality upon whoever consumes it.[1] It was brought to the gods inOlympus by doves,[2] so it may have been thought of in the Homeric tradition as a kind of divine exhalation of the Earth.

Contents

Definition

For its Indian equivalent, see Amrita.

Ambrosia is very closely related to the gods’ other form of sustenance, nectar. The two terms may not have originally been distinguished;[3] though in Homer‘s poems nectar is usually the drink and ambrosia the food of the gods; it was with ambrosia Hera “cleansed all defilement from her lovely flesh”,[4] and with ambrosia Athena prepared Penelope in her sleep,[5] so that when she appeared for the final time before her suitors, the effect of the years had been stripped away and they were inflamed with passion at the sight of her. On the other hand, in Alcman,[6] nectar is the food, and in Sappho[7] and Anaxandrides, ambrosia is the drink.[8] When a character in Aristophanes‘ Knights says, “I dreamed the goddess poured ambrosia over your head— out of a ladle”, the homely and realistic ladle brings the ineffable moment to ground with a thump.

The consumption of ambrosia was typically reserved for divine beings. Upon his assumption into immortality on Olympus, Heracles is given ambrosia by Athena, while the hero Tydeus is denied the same thing when the goddess discovers him eating human brains. In one version of the myth of Tantalus, part of Tantalus’ crime is that after tasting ambrosia himself, he attempts to steal some away to give to other mortals.[9] Those who consume ambrosia typically had not blood in their veins, butichor.[10]

Both nectar and ambrosia are fragrant, and may be used as perfume: in the Odyssey Menelaus and his men are disguised as seals in untanned seal skins, “and the deadly smell of the seal skins vexed us sore; but the goddess saved us; she brought ambrosia and put it under our nostrils.”[11] Homer speaks of ambrosial raiment, ambrosial locks of hair, even the gods’ ambrosial sandals.

Among later writers, ambrosia has been so often used with generic meanings of “delightful liquid” that such late writers as AthenaeusPaulus and Dioscurides employ it as a technical terms in contexts of cookery,[12] medicine,[13] and botany.[14]

Additionally, some modern ethnomycologists, such as Danny Staples, identify ambrosia with the untameable hallucinogenic mushroom Amanita muscaria: “it was the food of the gods, their ambrosia, and nectar was the pressed sap of its juices”, Staples asserts.[15]

W. H. Roscher thinks that both nectar and ambrosia were kinds of honey, in which case their power of conferring immortality would be due to the supposed healing and cleansing power of honey, which is in fact anti-septic, and because fermented honey (mead) preceded wine as an entheogen in the Aegean world: on some Minoan seals goddesses had bee faces: compare Merope and Melissa.

Propolis, a hive product also known for its sweet fruity taste, cures sore throats, and there are many modern proprietary medicines which use honey as an ingredient.

Etymology

The concept of an immortality drink is attested in at least two Indo-European areas: Greek and Sanskrit. The Greek ἀμβροσία (ambrosia) is semantically linked to the Sanskrit अमृत (amrita) as both words denote a drink that gods use to achieve immortality. The two words may be derived from the same Indo-European form *ṇ-mṛ-to- : immortal (n- : negative prefix equivalent to the prefix a- in both Greek and Sanskrit; mṛ : zero grade of *mer- : to die; and -to- : adjectival suffix).

However, the connection that has derived ambrosia from the Greek prefix a- (“not”) and the word brotos (“mortal”), hence the food or drink of the immortals, has been found merely coincidental by some modern linguists.[16]

The classical scholar Arthur Woollgar Verrall denied that there is any clear example in which the word ambrosios necessarily means immortal, and preferred to explain it as “fragrant,” a sense which is always suitable. If so, the word may be derived from the Semitic MBR, giving “amber“, which when burned is resinously fragrant (compare “ambergris“) to which Eastern nations attribute miraculous properties. In Europe, honey-colored amber, sometimes far from its natural source, was already a grave gift in Neolithic times and was still worn in the 7th century as a talisman by druidic Frisians, though St. Eligius warned “No woman should presume to hang amber from her neck.”

Other examples in mythology

Thetis anoints Achilles with ambrosia

  • In one version of the story of the birth of AchillesThetis anoints the infant with ambrosia and passes the child through the fire to make him immortal—a familiar Phoenician custom—but Peleus, appalled, stops her, leaving only his heel unimmortalised (Argonautica 4.869-879).
  • In the Iliad xvi, Apollo washes the black blood from the corpse of Sarpedon and anoints it with ambrosia, readying it for its dreamlike return to Sarpedon’s native Lycia. Similarly, Thetis anoints the corpse of Patroclus in order to preserve it. Additionally, both ambrosia and nectar are depicted as unguents (xiv. 170; xix. 38).
  • In the OdysseyCalypso is described as having “spread a table with ambrosia and set it by Hermes, and mixed the rosy-red nectar.” It is ambiguous whether he means the ambrosia itself is rosy-red, or if he is describing a rosy-red nectar Hermes drinks along with the ambrosia. Later, Circe mentions to Odysseus[17] that a flock of doves are the bringers of ambrosia to Olympus.
  • In the Odyssey (ix.345–359), Polyphemus likens the wine given to him by Odysseus to ambrosia and nectar.
  • One of the impieties of Tantalus, according to Pindar, was that he offered to his guests the ambrosia of the Deathless Ones, a theft akin to that of PrometheusKarl Kerenyi noted (in Heroes of the Greeks).
  • In the Homeric hymn to Aphrodite, the goddess uses “ambrosian oil” as perfume, “divinely sweet, and made fragrant for her sake.”

Lykourgos of Thrace and Ambrosia

Further information: Lycurgus (Thrace)

Lykourgos (Lycurgus) of Thrace, an antagonist of Dionysus, forbade the cult of Dionysus, whom he drove from Thrace, and was driven mad by the god. In his fit of insanity he killed his son, whom he mistook for a stock of mature ivy, and Ambrosia, who was transformed into the grapevine.

See also

  • Ichor, blood of the Greek gods, related to ambrosia.
  • Amrita, of Hindu mythology, a drink which confers immortality on the gods, and a cognate of ambrosia
  • Elixir of life, a potion sought by alchemy to produce immortality.

Flor do sal, ameaçada no Brasil

Publicado: setembro 19, 2009 por Yogi em Culture, Epicurious, Juris, Tudo

Do blog do Josimar Melo

Não tenho ouvido falar muito no assunto aqui em São Paulo, mas no Rio a chef Roberta Sudbrack deu o alerta em seu blog: por causa de uma lei que obriga a que o sal vendido no Brasil tenha iodo, a flor do sal, antiga e maravilhosa iguaria, estaria sendo proibida no Brasil (por ser estritamente natural e não ter iodo adicionado).

A questão é que o iodo é necessário para o corpo, e parece que é recomendável que o sal comum, utilizado no dia a dia, o tenha em sua composição. A burrice é que, por causa disso, não se admita que existam produtos diferentes, especiais. Pior: parece que o excesso de iodo vem tendo efeitos danosos também… E que a flor de sal, por não ser refinada, já vem com o iodo (que no processo industrial desaparece, e por isso deve ser acrescentado).

Bem, para não ficar repetindo o que já foi dito, recomendo a leitura do blog da Roberta Sudbrack a respeito. O site das meninas (também cariocas) da Malagueta tem infomações mais detalhadas.

do Guia da Folha

Ampulhetas gigantes espalhadas pela cidade zeraram nesta sexta-feira (7) a contagem regressiva para que a lei antifumo entre em vigor. A partir de agora, fica proibido o fumo em locais fechados –incluindo restaurantes, bares e casas noturnas.

Pensando em uma alternativa para os fumantes, o Guia consultou cerca de 85 estabelecimentos e comprovou que ainda há muita confusão sobre o que pode ou não ser feito para adequar os espaços à norma. Selecionamos dezenas de locais onde ainda é possível dar tragos, entre comes e bebes. E isso sem deixar as marcas da fumaça nos vizinhos.

BARES

Bar Brahma Aeroclube
Localizado na região norte, dentro do Campo de Marte, tem uma pequena área na entrada rodeada por um jardim. Nesse deque, 16 mesas com guarda-sóis servirão clientes fumantes com chope da casa e cardápio assinado por Olivier Anquier. Não fumantes ficam no salão interior isolados por uma porta de vidro, que deve ser mantida fechada.
Informe-se sobre o local

Maria do Carmo/Folha Imagem
Senzala Bar e Grill (foto), que terá jardim isolado
Senzala Bar e Grill (foto), que terá jardim isolado para os fumantes

Bar Brahma
Até hoje (dia 7), garante que ficam prontas as adaptações para receber fumantes. Do boulevar, uma área coberta com varanda, serão retiradas as proteções laterais e o ambiente será isolado por meio de portas. Boa acomodação para os dias de chuva, ofecere 150 lugares.
Informe-se sobre o local

Bar da Dida
O pequenino bar, que um dia foi uma garagem, tem a maioria de suas mesas na calçada e no estacionamento do salão de beleza vizinho. Lá, em 13 mesas ao ar livre, fumantes podem aproveitar cerca de 40 rótulos de cachaça.
Informe-se sobre o local

Bardot Boteco Bistrô
No andar superior, o terraço passou a funcionar sem o toldo que o recobria para receber fumantes. Durante a chuva, entretanto, não há cobertura para proteger os visitantes. Até sexta, segundo os proprietários, será instalada uma porta para vedar o ambiente do resto da casa, como exige a lei.
Informe-se sobre o local

Champanharia Ovelha Negra
Ótima pedida para quem curte espumantes, o boteco classudo tem um espaço pequeno na entrada onde será permitido fumar. No local, mesas mais altas serão espalhadas para deixar a área mais aconchegante. As portas e janelas ficam fechadas para que a fumaça não se espalhe para o ambiente dos não fumantes.
Informe-se sobre o local

Corleonne
Com toldo retrátil, vai permitir que seus visitantes fumem no espaço externo. Nessa varanda, isolada por portas de vidro do interior do bar, estão dez mesas.
Informe-se sobre o local

Enoteca Decanter
O wine-bar dentro da importadora tem ambiente sofisticado, no qual impressiona a carta de vinhos com 50 opções da bebida servida em taça. A área externa, sem tantos requintes, tem apenas três mesas. Sem toldos ou proteção lateral, fica ao lado de um pequeno jardim, onde é possível fumar à vontade.
Informe-se sobre o local

Jacaré Grill
Apesar de não permitir o fumo em nenhum de seus ambientes, inaugurou um pequeno terraço instalado em sua entrada. Essa espécie de “pracinha” conta com oito mesas e alguns bancos de madeira. Mesmo simpática, não protege seus frequentadores de possíveis aguaceiros.
Informe-se sobre o local

Tadeu Brunelli/Divulgação
Pirajá (foto) se prepara para receber fumantes do lado externo, em local próximo às árvores
Pirajá (foto) se prepara para receber fumantes do lado externo, em local próximo às árvores

Hi Fi
Tem um ambiente instalado em um terraço completamente a céu aberto, onde será possível fumar. Segundo os proprietários, o espaço, que tem capacidade para 80 pessoas, receberá até hoje uma porta para que seja isolado do restante da construção.
Informe-se sobre o local

Pé de Manga
Em uma enorme área ao ar livre, reúne três grandes mangueiras e um pequeno lago. É nesse cenário, isolado do restante do bar por meio de portas, que estão cerca de 60 mesas onde o fumo é livre. O espaço, entretanto, só pode acolher tragos dos visitantes até a 1h, quando as mesas da área externa têm de ser recolhidas devido ao Programa de Silêncio Urbano (PSIU).
Informe-se sobre o local

Pirajá
Do lado externo dessa simpática esquina há uma área aberta, próxima às árvores. Lá, quando as janelas estiverem fechadas, até 60 clientes podem desfrutar do bom chope da casa na companhia do cigarro. Nas laterais, porém, o fumo segue proibido.
Informe-se sobre o local

San Sebastian
Um mezanino que não era utilizado pelo bar foi vedado com ajuda de uma porta de vidro para receber clientes fumantes. A área, que é descoberta, pode receber até 36 pessoas.
Informe-se sobre o local

Senzala Bar & Grill
Um amplo jardim, repleto de árvores, é o cenário onde os clientes podem desfrutar do cigarro. São 45 mesas isoladas do ambiente interno por meio de uma porta de vidro, que, segundo os donos do bar, será mantida fechada.
Informe-se sobre o local

O Torcedor
As longas colunas do estádio do Pacaembu fazem companhia para as mesas desse bar, que fica na praça Charles Miller. Em sua área externa, 44 mesas podem ser usadas por fumantes.
Informe-se sobre o local

Veredas
É em sua varanda, sem toldo ou proteção lateral, que estão dez mesas ideais para receber fumantes. O espaço é isolado por porta de vidro, mas só funciona até a 1h, quando as mesas têm de ser recolhidas por conta do Programa de Silêncio Urbano (PSIU).
Informe-se sobre o local

Tunamar foi um navio japonês fabricado em 1973 e que ficou mais conhecido no Brasil pelo seu nome anterior, “Solana Star” (seu nome original foi “Foo Lang III”).

Em 1987 o então Solana Star, vindo da Austrália em direção aos EUA traficando 22 toneladas de maconha enlatada, teve que ir à costa brasileira para fazer reparos. Temendo serem abordados pela Marinha Brasileira, 13 de setembro de 1987 os tripulantes jogaram ao mar a carga de maconha. Das 22 toneladas a polícia só conseguiu apreender 3,5, fazendo com que o resto das latas ficassem à deriva no mar.

Muitas dessas latas acabaram sendo levadas pela correnteza às praias de São Paulo e principalmente do Rio de Janeiro, fazendo com que o período em que isso aconteceu ficasse conhecido como “o verão da lata” (1987/1988). O episódio ficou conhecido em todo o Brasil, e a banda do baixista ex-parceiro da Legião Urbana Renato Rocha chegou a ser batizada como “Solana Star”.

O navio foi depois disso apreendido e depois leiloado, convertendo-se em navio pesqueiro de Atum com um novo nome, “Tunamar”. Mas assim como o Titanic, ele acabou afundando em sua viagem inaugural (de Niterói com destino ao litoral de Santa Catarina) em 11 de outubro de 1994, devido à más condições do tempo. Vinte e dois tripulantes sobreviveram, outros dois morreram e nove ficaram desaparecidos no interior do navio.

garum

garum ou liquamen era um género de condimento muito utilizado na Antiguidade, especialmente na Roma Antiga. É feito de sanguevíscerase de outras partes seleccionadas do atum ou da cavala misturadas com peixes pequenos, crustáceos e moluscos esmagados; tudo isto era deixado em salmoura e ao sol durante cerca de dois meses ou então aquecido artificialmente. Este produto era exportado para várias partes doMediterrâneo.

Há notícias de exportação de garum para Atenas, no século V a.C. A existência de numerosos vestígios de fábricas detectados no litoral mediterrânico da península Ibérica, provam um nítido crescimento desta indústria conserveira. Em Roma, o garum chegou a ser um produto de luxo, chegando a atingir 1000 denários (apenas 6,5 l.)

 

Em Portugal, a maior concentração de vestígios de unidades de fabrico de garum localiza-se no litoral algarvio. Na 

ânfora

região atlântica há a referir os restos descobertos no Alto de Martim Vaz (Póvoa de Varzim), na praia de Angeiras (Matosinhos) e no estuário do rio Sado, em Creiro, Rasca, Comenda, Ponta da Areia, Moinho Novo e Tróia, um dos mais importantes centros conserveiros da Hispânia. As ruínas destas fábricas (usinas) até agora achadas em território português são constituídos pelos tanques ou cetárias destinados à salga de peixe e à preparação de conservas, normalmente de alvenaria. As conservas de peixe destinadas à exportação eram embaladas em recipientes de cerâmica, as ânforas.

Space/Time Foam

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Supersimetric and Unified Field Theory

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CHICAGO (AFP) – Physicists have come closer to finding the elusive “God Particle,” which they hope could one day explain why particles have mass, the US Department of Energy’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory announced Friday.

Researchers at the Fermilab have managed to shrink the territory where the elusive Higgs Boson particle is expected to be found — a discovery placing the American research institute ahead of its European rival in the race to discover one of the biggest prizes in physics.

Physicists have long puzzled over how particles acquire mass.

In 1964, a British physicist, Peter Higgs, came up with this idea: there must exist a background field that would act rather like treacle.

Particles passing through it would acquire mass by being dragged through a mediator, which theoreticians dubbed the Higgs Boson.

The standard quip about the Higgs is that it is the “God Particle” — it is everywhere but remains frustratingly elusive.

Confirming the Higgs would fill a huge gap in the so-called Standard Model, the theory that summarizes our present knowledge of particles. Over the years, scientists have whittled down the ranges of mass that the Higgs is likely to have.

Physicists were hopeful that the particle could be found with Europe’s Big Bang atom-smasher, the Large Hadron Collider.

But the Collider was shut down just days after it was turned on in September 2008 at the European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN) below the Franco-Swiss border.

It is not scheduled to be turned back on until September of this year, while researchers at the rival Fermilab have cranked up their efforts to discover the Higgs.

Researchers at CERN had already determined that the Higgs must weigh more than 114 GeV/c2, Femilab said in a press release.

Calculations of quantum effects involving the Higgs Boson require its mass to be less than 185 GeV/c2.

Using Fermilab’s Tevatron collider, researchers were able to “carve out a section in the middle of this range and establish that it cannot have a mass in between 160 and 170 GeV/c2.”

They did this by combing the efforts of two major research groups that have analyzed three inverse femtobarns of collision data — the scientific unit that scientists use to count the number of collisions.

Each experiment expects to receive a total of about 10 inverse femtobarns by the end of 2010.

“A particle collision at the Tevatron collider can produce a Higgs boson in many different ways, and the Higgs particle can then decay into various particles,” said Fermilab researcher Rob Roser.

“Each experiment examines more and more possibilities. Combining all of them, we hope to see a first hint of the Higgs particle.”

We don’t really know how many people smoke it. Some sources say 10 million Americans, others say 35 million. But a lot of people smoke pot and they don’t seem very sick. Marijuana just won’t go away. Everybody talks about it—many quite fondly. About everyone I know under 55 has smoked it. And they’re all right. A few have that pothead “oh wow” personality, but so what? I don’t know of one case of serious marijuana-related disease among my friends, family and acquaintances.At work I have to report the same thing. I’ve been in hospitals and around sick people for 26 years now. I’ve admitted plenty of patients who have owned up to using pot. I think I can often tell by how they act. But do the health effects of pot seem very serious? As dangerous as those of alcohol, tobacco, overworking, fashion magazines or overeating? Nope. In fact, the health effects of pot are not nearly as dangerous as the jail they throw you in for possessing it. Not even close. I’m not an oncologist, but I haven’t seen a case of lung cancer clearly related to dope smoking. Memory loss, depression, anxiety? Could it be as bad as turning 50? As for it being a gateway drug — how about beer?

There are some reasonable medical uses for cannabis. One patient I knew could get relief from her chemotherapy-induced nausea from nothing other than smoking joints. She was dying in the Massachusetts General Hospital from Ewing’s sarcoma at 19, so no one was going to stop her. The word on our oncology floors is that pot’s a pretty good appetite stimulant and anti-emetic. A few patients have asked me for it in connection with this. But no, I have never actually written an outpatient prescription for Cannabinol, THC or marijuana leaf (and I have no idea where they could get one filled anyway).

The chief dangers of marijuana, practically, seem to spring from only one of its features: it’s illegal. People get beat up, shot up and locked up because of the great amount of money that rides on selling the stuff, stuff that would be about as expensive as lettuce if it weren’t against the law. I have treated people seriously hurt by the illegality of pot.

Do I recommend using it? No way. Never used it, even in the bad old days, and I hope that none of my kids ever do. There’s something repulsive about the half-closed, red eyes — something that’s selfish and irresponsible. The biggest reason I didn’t smoke it in the ’70s, when everybody I knew was trying “to get me high,” was that I wanted to be able to tell my kids that I didn’t so that they wouldn’t. I feel strongly about it—it’s really not my bag. But that’s who I am. I also feel pretty strongly that nearly every child should study Latin—really—but I don’t think we should lock them up if they don’t.

For me, it’s similar to the speed-reading phenomenon. In the ’70s and ’80s there were all sorts of advertisements for this great system that would help you read the whole Sunday Times in 15 minutes “with complete comprehension and recall.” I almost sent away for it. I still wonder about it but am now pretty sure it doesn’t work. Here’s how I know: I have never met a single person who could do it. Hanging around with many big readers for the past 35 years I should have bumped into at least one who took the course and could actually read that fast. I can’t help but think it’s the same with pot. Hanging around with all sorts of big dope-smokers for the same 35 years I should have bumped into at least one or two with those “serious health effects”. The fact is I haven’t. But I would listen to any docs out there who have actually seen or treated diseases truly caused by pot.

Another undeniable is that pot has cachet among teens. Some kids between 13 and 19 are clearly willing to risk everything to smoke the stuff — they know how much trouble they can get in. The “smoker” label seems as important a part of their personae as their tastes in music and clothing — maybe more so because it’s illegal. It’s as defining for them as it was for my pothead friends in the ’70s. Maybe they’ll become investment bankers too.

An important “art of medicine” issue is sensitivity to the individual’s right to self-determination. We work hard to respect patient choice. Lots of explaining, rebutting and cleaning up messes. And as the government should, we draw a line. I won’t prescribe cyanide for a patient in pain, even if he asks for it, and the government shouldn’t permit home nuclear bomb experiments, even for garage-inventors who promise to be careful.

But some people love cannabis and they’re going to get it anyway. Good doctors do learn to persuade and cajole to gently make what we think is the right choice into the patient’s choice. (“The girls in therapy really seem to get a kick out of you. Are you sure you don’t want to go anymore?”) The government equivalent of this is called “drug education” and it’s fine. But when you try to change certain things by force, things close to the core about what folks love and hate, about their personalities, you just run into trouble. It doesn’t work. You might knock down but you will never build up. This is why the government is better off out of the marijuana business.

Angostura bitters

Publicado: fevereiro 20, 2009 por Yogi em Culture, Epicurious, International, Nature, Tudo

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Angostura bitters, often simply referred to as angostura, is a concentrated bitters for food and beverages made of herbs and spices by House of Angostura in the country of Trinidad and Tobago. The distinctive bottle is easily recognisable due to its oversized label.

The recipe was developed as a tonic by German Dr. Johann Gottlieb Benjamin Siegert, a Surgeon General in Simon Bolivar‘s army in Venezuela, who began to sell it in 1824. Siegert was based in Ciudad Bolívar which was then known as Angostura, and used locally available ingredients. Perhaps he drew on the botanical knowledge of the local Amerindians, although the single ingredient named on the label is gentian.[1] The exact formula is a closely guarded secret, with only five people knowing the whole recipe.[2]

As Angostura bitters are extremely concentrated, they are not normally drunk purely, but used to flavour drinks and food; usually only a few drops or dashes are used.

Angostura bitters are a key ingredient in many cocktails. Originally used to mask the flavour ofquinine in tonic water along with gin, the mix stuck in the form of a Pink Gin, and is also used in many other alcoholic cocktails such as Long vodka, consisting of vodka, Angostura bitters, and lemonade; and the Manhattan, made with whiskey and sweet (Italian) vermouth. In a Pisco Sour a few drops are sprinkled on top of the foam, both for aroma and decoration. Bitters can also be used in soft drinks – a common non-alcoholic drink served in Australian pubs is lemon, lime and bitters. An approximation ofginger ale (as a drink mixer) can be made by filling a glass, almost to the top, with lemon-lime soda, adding a splash or two of cola, and then adding a couple dashes of Angostura bitters.

Angostura bitters are alleged to have restorative properties. It was reported to be a remedy for hiccups,[3] and also can be used as a cure for an upset stomach. [4] Across many Caribbean nations, they are regarded as a necessary addition to any household medicine cabinet.[citation needed]

Folklore claims the bitters have raised people from near-death or even flat-line states. Many Caribbean islanders and Venezuelans extol the bitters’ medicinal use as a cure-all for conditions ranging from headaches and abdominal pain to diarrhea andinfluenza.[citation needed]

Vídeo – Aula de Culinária – Hermes e Renato

Publicado: janeiro 28, 2009 por brunopm em Epicurious