Arquivo da categoria ‘Arts’

Tzimtzum

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Part of a series on
Kabbalah
10 Sephirot
Prior to Creation, there was only the infinite Or Ein Sof filling all existence. When it arose in G-d’s Will to create worlds and emanate the emanated…He contracted (in Hebrew “tzimtzum”) Himself in the point at the center, in the very center of His light. He restricted that light, distancing it to the sides surrounding the central point, so that there remained a void, a hollow empty space, away from the central point… After this tzimtzum… He drew down from the Or Ein Sof a single straight line [of light] from His light surrounding [the void] from above to below [into the void], and it chained down descending into that void…. In the space of that void He emanated, created, formed and made all the worlds. (Etz Chaim, Arizal, Heichal A”K, anaf 2)
[1]]

Tzimtzum (Hebrew צמצום ṣimṣūm “contraction” or “constriction”) is a term used in the Lurianic Kabbalah teaching of Isaac Luria, explaining his concept that God began the process of creation by “contracting” his infinite light in order to allow for a “conceptual space” in which a finite and seemingly independent world could exist. This contraction, forming an “empty space” (חלל הפנוי) in which creation could begin, is known as the Tzimtzum.

Because the Tzimtzum results in the conceptual “space” in which the physical universe and free will can exist, God is often referred to as “Ha-Makom” (המקום lit. “the place”, “the omnipresent”) in Rabbinic literature. Relatedly, olam—the Hebrew word for “world” or universe—is derived from the root word עלם meaning “concealment”. This etymology is complementary with the concept of Tzimtzum, in that thephysical universe conceals the spiritual nature of creation.

Contents

In Lurianic thought

Main article: Lurianic Kabbalah

Isaac Luria introduced three central themes into kabbalistic thought, Tzimtzum, Shevirat HaKelim (the shattering of the vessels), and Tikkun (repair). These three are a group of interrelated, and continuing, processes. Tzimzum describes the first step in the process by which God began the process of creation by withdrawing his own essence from an area, creating an area in which creation could begin. Shevirat HaKelim describes how, after the Tzimtzum, God created the vessels (HaKelim) in the empty space, and how when God began to pour his Light into the vessels they were not strong enough to hold the power of God’s Light and shattered (Shevirat). The third step, Tikkun, is the process of gathering together, and raising, the sparks of God’s Light that were carried down with the shards of the shattered vessels.[2]

Since Tzimtzum is connected to the concept of exile, and Tikkun is connected to the need to repair the problems of the world of human existence, Luria unites the cosmology of Kabbalah with the practice of Jewish ethics, and makes ethics and traditional Jewish religious observance the means by which God allows humans to complete and perfect the material world through living the precepts of a traditional Jewish life.[3]

Inherent paradox

A commonly held [4] understanding in Kabbalah is that the concept of Tzimtzum contains a built-in paradox, requiring that God be simultaneously transcendent and immanent.

  • On the one hand, if the “Infinite” did not restrict itself, then nothing could exist—everything would be overwhelmed by God’s totality. Thus existence requires God’s transcendence, as above.
  • On the other hand, God continuously maintains the existence of, and is thus not absent from, the created universe. “The Divine life-force which brings all creatures into existence must constantly be present within them… were this life-force to forsake any created being for even one brief moment, it would revert to a state of utter nothingness, as before the creation…” [5]. This understanding is supported by various biblical teachings: “You have made the heaven… the earth and all that is on it… and You give life to them all” (Nehemiah 9:6); “All the earth is filled with God’s Glory” (Numbers 14:21); “God’s Glory fills the world” (Isaiah 6:3). Creation therefore requires God’s immanence.

Rabbi Nachman of Breslav discusses this inherent paradox as follows:

Only in the future will it be possible to understand the Tzimtzum that brought the ‘Empty Space’ into being, for we have to say of it two contradictory things… [1] the Empty Space came about through the Tzimtzum, where, as it were, He ‘limited’ His Godliness and contracted it from there, and it is as though in that place there is no Godliness… [2] the absolute truth is that Godliness must nevertheless be present there, for certainly nothing can exist without His giving it life. (Likkutei Moharan I, 64:1)

This paradox is strengthened by reference to the closely related doctrine of divine simplicity, which holds that God is absolutely simple, containing no element of form or structure whatsoever. This gives rise to two difficulties. Firstly, according to this doctrine, it is impossible for God to shrink or expand (physically or metaphorically)—an obvious contradiction to the above. Secondly, according to this doctrine, if God’s creative will is present, then He must be present in total—whereas the Tzimtzum, on the other hand, results in, and requires, a “partial Presence” as above.

The paradox has an additional aspect, in that the Tzimtzum results in a perception of the world being imperfect despite God’s omniperfect Presence being everywhere. As a result, some Kabbalists saw the Tzimtzum as a cosmic illusion.

Chabad view

In Chabad Hassidism, on the other hand, the concept of Tzimtzum is understood as not meant to be interpreted literally, but rather to refer to the manner in which God impresses His presence upon the consciousness of finite reality [2]: thus tzimtzum is not only seen as being a real process but is also seen as a doctrine that every person is able, and indeed required, to understand and meditate upon.

In the Chabad view, the function of the Tzimtzum was “to conceal from created beings the activating force within them, enabling them to exist as tangible entities, instead of being utterly nullified within their source” [6]. The tzimtzum produced the required “vacated space” (chalal panui חלל פנוי, chalal חלל), devoid of direct awareness of God’s presence.

Here Chassidut sheds light on the concept of Tzimtzum via the analogy of a person and his speech. (The source of this analogy is essentially Genesis Chapter 1, where God “spoke” to create heaven and earth.):

In order to communicate, a person must put aside all that he knows, all his experiences, and all that he is, and say only one thing (“the contraction”). This is especially the case when we speak of an educator, whose level of mind and understanding is almost completely removed and incomparable to his student, that has to “find” an idea that is simple enough to convey to the student. However, when he goes through this process and now is choosing to express himself through this particular utterance, he has not in any way lost or forgotten all the knowledge of who he really is (“thus the contraction is not a literal contraction”).

(Furthermore, the one who hears his words also has the full revelation of who that person is when he hears those words, though he may not realize it. If the listener understood the language and was sensitive enough, he would be able to pull out from those words everything there is to know about the person.)

So too, God chose to express Himself through this world with all of its limitations. However, this does not mean, as pantheism posits, that God is limited to this particular form, or that God has “forgotten” all He can do. He still “remembers what He really is”, meaning that He remains always in His infinite essence, but is choosing to reveal only this particular aspect of Himself. The act of Tzimtzum is thus how God “puts aside” His infinite light, and allows for an “empty space”, void of any indication of the Divine Presence. He then can reveal a limited finite aspect of his light (namely our imperfect, finite reality).

(As clarified before, if man were spiritually sensitive enough, we would be able to see how God is truly giving us a full revelation of His infinite self through the medium of this world. To a listener who does not understand the language being spoken, the letters are “empty” of any revelation of the person. In the analogue this means that the world looks to us to be “empty” of Godly revelation. Kaballah and Chassidus, however, teaches one how to meditate in order to be able to understand God’s “language” so that one can see the Godly revelation in every aspect of creation.)

Therefore, no paradox exists. The finite Godly light that is immanent within the universe, constantly creating and vivifying it, is only a “faint glimmer of a glimmer of a glimmer” (TanyaIggeret HaKodesh, Chapter 20) of God’s infinite, transcendent light that has been completely concealed by tzimtzum. (See also Dovber SchneuriNer Mitzva Vetorah OrKehot Publication SocietyISBN 0-8266-5496-7.)

Vilna Gaon’s view

The Gaon held that tzimtzum was not literal, however, the “upper unity”, the fact that the universe is only illusory, and that tzimtzum was only figurative, was not perceptible, or even really understandable, to those not fully initiated in the mysteries of Kabbalah.[7][8]

The Leshem articulates this view clearly (and claims that not only is it the opinion of the Vilna Gaon, but also is the straightforward and simple reading of Luria and is the only true understanding).

He writes

I have also seen some very strange things in the words of some contemporary kabbalists who explain things deeply. They say that all of existence is only an illusion and appearance, and does not truly exist. This is to say that the ein sof didn’t change at all in itself and its necessary true existence and it is now still exactly the same as it was before creation, and there is no space empty of Him, as is known (see Nefesh Ha-Chaim Shaar 3). Therefore they said that in truth there is no reality to existence at all, and all the worlds are only an illusion and appearance, just as it says in the verse “in the hands of the prophets I will appear” (Hoshea 12: 11). They said that the world and humanity have no real existence, and their entire reality is only an appearance. We perceive ourselves as if we are in a world, and we perceive ourselves with our senses, and we perceive the world with our senses. It turns out [according to this opinion] that all of existence of humanity and the world is only a perception and not in true reality, for it is impossible for anything to exist in true reality, since He fills all the worlds…. How strange and bitter is it to say such a thing. Woe to us from such an opinion. They don’t think and they don’t see that with such opinions they are destroying the truth of the entire Torah….[9]

However, the Gaon and the Leshem held that tzimtzum only took place in God’s Will (Ratzon), but that it is impossible to say anything at all about God Himself (Atzmut). Thus, they did not actually believe in a literal Tzimtzum in God’s Essence.[citation needed] Luria’s Etz Chaim itself, however, in the First Shaar, is ambivalent: in one place it speaks of a literal tzimtzum in God’s Essence and Self, then it changes a few lines later to a tzimtzum in the Divine Light (an emanated, hence created and not part of God’s Self, energy).[citation needed]

Application in clinical psychology

An Israeli professor, Mordechai Rotenberg, believes the KabbalisticHasidic tzimtzum paradigm has significant implications for clinical therapy. According to this paradigm, God’s “self-contraction” to vacate space for the world serves as a model for human behavior and interaction. The tzimtzum model promotes a unique community-centric approach which contrasts starkly with the language of Western psychology.[10]

See also

References

  1. ^ Rabbi Moshe Miller, The Great Constriction, kabbalaonline.org.
  2. ^ James David Dunn, Windows of the Soul, p.21-24
  3. ^ J.H. Laenen, Jewish Mysticism, p.168-169
  4. ^ see for example Aryeh Kaplan, “Paradoxes” (in “The Aryeh Kaplan Reader”, Artscroll 1983. ISBN 0-89906-174-5)
  5. ^ Yosef Wineberg, Commentary on TanyaShaar Hayichud veHaEmunah [1]
  6. ^ TanyaShaar Hayichud veHaEmunahch.4
  7. ^ E. J. Schochet, The Hasidic Movement and the Gaon of Vilna
  8. ^ Allan Nadler, The Faith of the Mithnagdim
  9. ^ Leshem Sh-vo ve-Achlama Sefer Ha-Deah drush olam hatohu chelek 1, drush 5, siman 7, section 8 (p. 57b)
  10. ^ Rotenberg Center for Jewish Psychology

[edit]Bibliography

External links

Anúncios

A primeira DJ do Brasil

Publicado: março 11, 2010 por Yogi em Arts, Music, Non Sense, Philosophy, Psy, Tudo

Era dia de festa. A mãe de Sonia havia parado de respirar havia poucas horas – morte cerebral. Mas Henrique Meirelles, presidente do Banco Central, esperava a DJ com a casa cheia. Sonia colocou aquela senhora num caixão, na sala de casa, no Jardim Paulistano, bairro nobre de São Paulo. Cuidaria do assunto na volta do trabalho. Naquele momento, apenas entrou no carro com 5 mil de seus 20 mil CDs e fez a high society paulistana dançar até funk carioca noite adentro.

Sonia Maria Saraiva Santos Abreu, a SoniÁbrêu (ela assina assim por causa da numerologia), é especialista em fazer qualquer um saracotear ao som de música africana, sertaneja ou árabe até hoje – mais de 40 anos depois de popularizar músicas gringas até então inéditas no Brasil e se tornar a primeira DJ mulher do país. Aos 60 anos, ela curte “o pé no chão” que veio com a menopausa. Mas estreia o programa Ondas Tropicais no UOL este mês e paga as contas tocando em festas de Marta Suplicy, do publicitário Nizan Guanaes ou do filho da empresária Sonia Diniz.

A DJ recebe a reportagem da Tpm de batom vermelho e sombra rosa. Acaba de chegar do Guarujá (SP), onde foi pegar onda de morey boogie, esporte que pratica há dez anos. Seis meses depois da morte da mãe, Sonia mora sozinha na mesma casa. Seu estúdio é na edícula. Lá, ela baixa músicas no computador para abastecer o repertório, que inclui forró e Ivete Sangalo, os ídolos Rolling Stones, Frank Zappa, Zeca Baleiro, Carl Cox e Beatles e nomes de que gosta na cena atual, como Pitty e a banda Pedra. Há 11 anos, ela vendeu e doou seus 22 mil LPs. “Pra que guardar velharia?”, pergunta.

De antiga, basta sua certidão de nascimento. Por causa dela, Sonia tem que se apresentar a profissionais mais jovens, que perguntam: “Você?! DJ!?!”. “Ninguém imagina uma DJ velha”, pondera a própria. “Pela experiência, ela tem coragem, por exemplo, de colocar música indiana num repertório house”, observa o DJ Paulo Recicle, 30, que faz assistência para a veterana.

Mas por pouco Sonia não arrasa em rede nacional. “Era para eu estar no Big Brother”, garante. Segundo ela, no dia da entrevista para entrar no programa, o diretor do reality show, Boninho, mudou de ideia ao ver que o cabelo da DJ estava branco, e não mais vermelho, como era sua marca registrada. “Ela estava entre as 300 entrevistadas e não foi escolhida, mas não por sua aparência. A observação sobre a mudança do cabelo foi só brincadeira!”, esclarece Boninho.

Profissional desde os 18 anos, Sonia começou como programadora da rádio Excelsior, onde ficou até os 28. “Eu que trouxe a world music para o Brasil”, garante. Ficou outros dez anos na rádio Brasil 2000, quatro na 89 FM e passou pela USP FM. Ela também esteve no Festival de Águas Claras – espécie de Woodstock brasileiro, em Iacanga (SP), em 1979 (leia reportagem na Tpm#91) – e criou a Ondas Tropicais, uma rádio ambulante estilo sound system jamaicano.

Sonia atribui essa ideia a um encontro com extraterrestres, que conta ter acontecido numa praça paulistana, nos anos 80. A bordo de sua Brasília, ela avistou um objeto grande, cinza. Desceu do carro e, em poucos instantes, apagou. “Mas ouvi vozes me dizerem que eu tinha que tocar para a massa. Falaram até as medidas que deveria ter a mesa de som”, conta.

O projeto, que durou oito anos, começou com uma Kombi, passou para um trio elétrico, rodou São Paulo e terminou num barco navegando pelos litorais paulista e fluminense. Além disso, Sonia fundou, em 1990, uma banda com 22 artistas, entre eles bailarinas africanas, percussionistas, trompetista e cantores líricos. O grupo abriu shows de Jimmy Cliff, YellowMan e Margareth Menezes.

O amigo, jornalista e DJ Otávio Rodrigues dividiu com ela um programa na rádio 89, nos anos 80. “Sonia estuda antes de fazer uma festa”, resume ele. Foi por isso que a produtora de TV e cinema Suzana Villas Boas a contratou para tocar, em 1990, no seu casamento com Arnaldo Jabor, hoje ex-marido. “Ela fez uma seleção inteligente, que transitava por todas as faixas etárias”, lembra Suzana, que repetiu a dose numa festa do programa Saia Justa, do GNT. “A Rita [Lee] não vai a lugar nenhum, mas foi nessa festa e dançou até o sol nascer”, lembra a anfitriã.

“A Rita Lee não vai a lugar nenhum, mas foi nessa festa, em que a Sonia tocou, e dançou até o sol nascer” Suzana Villas Boas, produtora de cinema e TV

Longe das pistas, a biografia de Sonia tem capítulos pouco conhecidos. Por exemplo, o fato de ela ter tomado a frente na recuperação do amigo e cantor Arnaldo Baptista, quando ele se jogou do quarto andar da clínica psiquiátrica do hospital do Servidor Público, em 1982. Ela morava com Lucinha, fã de Arnaldo na época, que virou esposa depois. Filha e sobrinha de médico e experiente na arte de falar, Sonia chantageou os médicos para conseguir livre acesso à UTI. “O quarto de onde o Arnaldo se jogou não tinha grade, e toda a imprensa estava fotografando isso. Eu prometi que não deixaria ser publicado desde que ele tivesse um quarto particular e nós pudéssemos montar nosso plantão”, lembra ela.

Música para dançar pelada
Há 40 anos vegetariana, e há 20 macrobiótica, Sonia salta da cama às cinco da manhã, corre 6 quilômetros, faz musculação, pratica ioga, anda de bike e almoça sempre no restaurante Revitalizante, no Paraíso, frequentado por Gilberto Gil, “um dos meus ídolos”. Mas seu ídolo número 1 é Jesus Cristo, cuja imagem divide as paredes do estúdio de Sonia com deuses hindus e fotos da DJ de cabelo comprido e cara de menina. Apesar da passagem do tempo, ela tem pique para passar noites sem dormir e se orgulha do corpo. “Eu posaria nua sem retoque!”, brinca.

Para Sonia, corpo nunca foi tabu. Já dançou muito pelada na frente do espelho, e só parou quando, aos 41 anos, voltou para a casa da mãe. Dona Aduzinda sofria de mal de Alzheimer e passou 18 anos entubada sob os cuidados da única filha. “Virei mãe da minha mãe”, diz Sonia, que nunca engravidou.

Arquivo Pessoal

A Kombi onde tudo começou

A Kombi onde tudo começou
Ela, que já foi simpatizante das ideias de liberdade sexual pregadas pelo indiano Osho Rajneesh, casou na igreja católica, em 1972, com um percussionista da Banda da Ilusão, de Ronnie Von. O apresentador foi padrinho da cerimônia e Silvio Santos, na época colega de Excelsior, deu ao casal um jogo de copos azuis. Mas o plano de formar uma família durou dois anos e, de lá para cá, Sonia teve apenas dois namorados. “Não quero sexo por sexo”, declara.

Por causa do espiritismo, Sonia parou de fumar maconha há um ano. Em bebida nunca foi chegada. “Essas coisas levam 50 anos para sair do corpo”, garante. Agora Sonia pensa em se mudar para Alto Paraíso de Goiás, quem sabe adotar uma criança… “Estou me preparando para a morte”, diz. Mas segue vivíssima, animando pistas e passando óleo de gergelim no rosto para manter a pele boa.

O plano deu certo e Sonia, Lucinha e mais cinco amigas se revezaram durante os três meses em que Arnaldo ficou em coma. Do acidente, ele ficou com a sequela de uma lesão cerebral, mas voltou a compor e a se apresentar com Os Mutantes.

Arquivo Pessoal

Na rua Augusta (SP), lançamento do disco do amigo Arnaldo Baptista, em 1983

Na rua Augusta (SP), lançamento do disco do amigo Arnaldo Baptista, em 1983

Tsang kin-wah

Publicado: janeiro 29, 2010 por Yogi em Arts, Poetry, Tudo

Artist Statement (http://www.tsangkinwah.com)

What are TRUTH and REALITY? Do they exist? Can people perceive or find them out? And how?

Generally, those concepts and ideas accepted and believed by the majority would be considered as “Truth” or “Reality”, but is it really the case or they are just relatively “true” and “real”? We can say that the so-called “Truth” and “Reality” are subjective, temporal and regional.

The appearance of things does not necessarily reflect the inner ‘Truth’. Beautiful things could be either beautiful or ugly inside and the same case also applies to ugly or vulgar objects. The linkage between the surface and the inside, the outer and the inner is rather fragile and is relied on how people perceive or interpret things and whether they would carry out these processes under the existed norms, believes or from different points of view.

The so-called “Art”, for some artists, has its own realm that exists for its own sake and does not or even should not reflect or interact with the things and objects outside. However, as we are living in the world and are surrounded by different things and objects, the ways we think, live and behave are inevitably affected by and linked with the outside world. In fact, we are embedded in a close and inseparable relationship with our surroundings. For me, art is not emancipated from the world but rather reflect or link with it. By posing different kind of questions and thinking about what we are familiar with, what happens around us and the legitimacy of pre-existing things, ideas, believes, etc., showing altered compositions which is different from the existing, and combining and juxtaposing the classic, elegant form with vulgar, secular content, viewer would be lead to rethink about the legitimacy, authority and authenticity of the existing views and ideas from a different angle.

Todas as cartas de amor…

Publicado: janeiro 10, 2010 por Yogi em Arts, Poetry, Tudo

Todas as cartas de amor são
Ridículas.
Não seriam cartas de amor se não fossem
Ridículas.

Também escrevi em meu tempo cartas de amor,
Como as outras,
Ridículas.

As cartas de amor, se há amor,
Têm de ser
Ridículas.

Mas, afinal,
Só as criaturas que nunca escreveram
Cartas de amor
É que são
Ridículas.

Quem me dera no tempo em que escrevia
Sem dar por isso
Cartas de amor
Ridículas.

A verdade é que hoje
As minhas memórias
Dessas cartas de amor
É que são
Ridículas.

(Todas as palavras esdrúxulas,
Como os sentimentos esdrúxulos,
São naturalmente
Ridículas.)


Álvaro de Campos, 21/10/1935

http://saopauloegratis.files.wordpress.com/2009/08/clip_image002_0108.jpg?w=300&h=269

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Osnat Tzadok (1968)

Publicado: outubro 8, 2009 por tchellmi em Arts

Osnat is a self-representing Canadian artist. She is best known for her large-size original abstract landscape and Contemporary modern paintings, but she mostly enjoys the combination of these three. Among her styles you can find Original Abstract Art paintings, Abstract Music Note, Decorative art, Cityscape, Abstract Fine Art, Modern Abstract Art, Contemporary Abstract Art, Landscape, Abstract Nature art, Abstract Original Artwork, Figures, Sci-fi, Dune art, Dune Paintings, Abstract Art Gallery, Inspirational, geometry, expressionism and more. Most of Osnat’s paintings and ideas are inspired by the nature around her, human emotions, sensibility, and invigoration. This inspiration is well emphasized by the titles of her creations. Painting is a big part of Osnat’s life routine. She enjoys painting with acrylic colors on single, diptych, triptych canvases. Osnat is noted for her excellence in creating a sequence of images, that when put together, make a visual celebration to the eye and mind. Osnat testifies to herself and others that every time she passes a blank canvas she feels something  explode inside of her. It is not something she can explain or pass on to someone else… but it is always, a beginning of a new creation.
Osnat has donated a few of her masterpieces to the Epilepsy Organization in Toronto. These creations were then sold during live auctions. All proceeds and money gains were then forwarded on to the Epilepsy Organization. Osnat’s art was featured in several art galleries in Europe, Canada, Asia, Australia and the United States.  Although her artwork was featured in art galleries, most of her creations dwell within the homes of her admirers.  All of her paintings are created to match the modern art stream. She strives for the best quality in both materials and finish. All her creations are hand-crafted with great care and are coated with fine art varnish to protect the colors for extended time, and to ensure durability and protection against changes in room temperature.

underneath-the-stars-osnat-tzadok

hush-osnat-tzadok

vanilla-sky-osnat-tzadok

Untitled-3757-998555-

12osnat

Osnat1c