Arquivo de maio, 2009

Charas

Publicado: maio 31, 2009 por Yogi em Capital, Culture, History, Psy, Tudo
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Charas 

Balls and sticks

Tosh Valley charas

Contents

History of charas

Charas has been used across the Indian sub-continent for its medicinal and religious properties for thousands of years[1] and was sold in government shops (along with opium) in the early days of the British Empire[2]. Charas plays an important and often integral role in the culture and ritual of the Hindu religion, especially among the Shaivs – the sub-division of Hinduism holding Lord Shiva to be the supreme god (in contrast to Vaishnavs who worship Lord Vishnu) and it is venerated as being one of the aspects of Lord Shiva.

Despite this long history, in India charas was made illegal in the 1980s and draconian sentences were introduced. Even the mere possession had a mandatory ten year prison sentence. These laws have now been somewhat relaxed, however Charas has been known to be a popular medium for police to extort bribes from consumers of the drug.

Even at the peak of the crackdown, charas was still popular and it remains so today, especially amongst Indian sadhus. The Naga Sadhus, Aghoris and Tantric Bhairav sects smoke it freely because they claim its use as being an integral part of their daily life. Many smoke it in clay pipes called chillums, using a cotton cloth to cover the smoking end of the chillum or by inserting a tightly packed pebble sized ball of cannabis as filter for the chillum. Before lighting the chillum they will chant the many names of Shiva in veneration. The government even provides its supply in huge quantity to meet the demand during the largest gathering of sadhus of all sects during the Kumbh mela, or festival of the holy men.[citation needed]

Local cultivation

The best charas grown in India comes from the mountains. The variety from Manaliand Malana in Himachal Pradesh is considered to be of the highest quality throughout both Pakistan and India. For this reason, the Indian subcontinent has become very popular with backpackers and those involved in drug smuggling. The best charas is made very high up away from the police and is known as ‘cream’.

The resin sticks to one’s palms and by the end of the day one has harvested perhaps 8 or 9 grams of charas. The faster one works, the lower the quality of charas. Hence, to make ‘Malana cream’ it is necessary to go very slowly and it is only possible to make a few grams a day. Nowadays production of cannabis in the Himalayas has increased as growing demand for the Malana cream named after the village it has been made. This ancient art is disappearing under the pressure to capitalize on the domestic and international market for charas.

[edit]Gardaa

Gardaa is a type of Charas made in Pakistan using dried cannabis of high potency. It is a very pure form of Charas; free from any additive chemicals. It is a very pliable substance which can take any shape. Usually sold in the shape of balls, Gardaa starts dissolving into smaller particles even with the heat of the palm. Gardaa is an Urdu word which means “Dust”. It is named Gardaa due to its similarity in colour to mud or brown thick dust. Charas is mostly consumed after it is heated. After it is heated, the “brown powder” changes into a smooth “greenish mass”. The term gardaa is also some times used to describe the greenish powder-form of charas. Gardaa has two types mainly, one is soft, solid, smooth structure known as pakka garda and the other one is kacha gardaa, kacha gardaa is a soft powder which is green (or lightly green brown sometimes).

Although gardaa is available throughout Pakistan, but it is made in northern tribal areas of Pakistan and in Afghanistan. it is mainly available in Peshawer, and even though the smell may linger in bazaars, it is not sold openly – though with a help of a guide one can find it. In N-W.F.P., It can mostly be found in those areas which lie on the border with Khyber Agency and Kurram Agency. One such place is Shah Kass which is part of Khyber Agency and borders with the Hayatabad neighborhood of Peshawar city. One “tola” averagely costs 170-210 Pakistani Rupees. Its price has increased due to the tension in the Tribal Areas. Gardaa is smoked, usually mixed with cigarette tobacco and rolled back into the cigarette blank. Cigarettes that burn longer due to cigarette paper/tobacco qualities are preferred for mixing and smoking Gardaa. To smoke Gardaa in a Cigarette, Cigarette tobacco is taken out and refined using hands to make it into smaller particles. Tobacco leaves with less moisture are easier to crush. Gardaa is than heated to make it soft; this is often referred to as ‘cooking’. The objective is to dissolve the Gardaa in the tobacco to make a mix while wasting minimum smoke value (meaning heated only enough to make it soft without burning it into smoke). Once mixed with the tobacco using hands it is filled back into the cigarette blank. The cigarette is tightly filled back to ensure maximum smoke in each puff.

Rolling paper is also used to smoke Gardaa. Gardaa with tobacco mixture is filled into the rolling paper to make a joint.

In the Indian administered part of Kashmir, Gardaa is made from dried cannabis leaves of low quality. They put the material into a cornleaf, by twisting the leaf the material is being pressed in the shape of a corkscrew. After some weeks or months of fermentation the unwrapped product is sold in its typical twisted shape but now in strong consistence for only half the price of charas. The colour is depending on the quality ranging from green to brown. In the seventies and eighties it was also available in Germany sometimes.[citation needed] What my prededessor describes is the most common way of producing Hashish in Morocco, Lebanon and Turkey.[citation needed] This method was introduced by western backpackers to the himalayan countries and was adopted by the local people.[citation needed] Traditionally they only produce Charas, Garda, Ganja andBhang from cannabis.

is the name given to hand-made hashish in AfghanistanPakistanNepal and India. It is made from the extract of the cannabis plant (Cannabis sativa). The plant grows wild throughout Northern India, Pakistan and the Himalayas (its putative origin) and is an important cash crop for the local people.

See also

Super Massive Black Hole of the Center of Our Galaxy Via Lactea - European Spacial Agency
Supermassive black hole
 

XMM-Newton takes astronomers to a black hole’s edge

 

27 May 2009
Using new data from ESA’s XMM-Newton spaceborne observatory, astronomers have probed closer than ever to a supermassive black hole lying deep at the core of a distant active galaxy.
 
The galaxy – known as 1H0707-495 – was observed during four 48-hr-long orbits of XMM-Newton around Earth, starting in January 2008. The black hole at its centre was thought to be partially obscured from view by intervening clouds of gas and dust, but these current observations have revealed the innermost depths of the galaxy. 

“We can now start to map out the region immediately around the black hole,” says Andrew Fabian, at the University of Cambridge, who headed the observations and analysis. 

X-rays are produced as matter swirls into a supermassive black hole. The X-rays illuminate and are reflected from the matter before its eventual accretion. Iron atoms in the flow imprint characteristic iron lines on the reflected light. The iron lines are distorted in a number of characteristic ways: they are affected by the speed of the orbiting iron atoms, the energy required for the X-rays to escape the black hole’s gravitational field, and the spin of the black hole. All these features show that the astronomers are tracking matter to within twice the radius of the black hole itself.  
 

“The black hole is swallowing the equivalent of two Earths per hour.”

XMM-Newton detected two bright features of iron emission in the reflected X-rays that had never been seen together in an active galaxy. These bright features are known as the iron L and K lines, and they can be so bright only if there is a high abundance of iron. Seeing both in this galaxy suggests that the core is much richer in iron than the rest of the galaxy. 

The direct X-ray emission varies in brightness with time. During the observation, the iron L line was bright enough for its variations to be followed.
 

A painstaking statistical analysis of the data revealed a time lag of 30 seconds between changes in the X-ray light observed directly, and those seen in its reflection from the disc. This delay in the echo enabled the size of the reflecting region to be measured, which leads to an estimate of the mass of the black hole at about 3 to 5 million solar masses. 

The observations of the iron lines also reveal that the black hole is spinning very rapidly and eating matter so quickly that it verges on the theoretical limit of its eating ability, swallowing the equivalent of two Earths per hour. 

The team are continuing to track the galaxy using their new technique. There is a lot for them to study. Far from being a steady process, like water slipping down a plughole, a feeding black hole is a messy eater. “Accretion is a very messy process because of the magnetic fields that are involved,” says Fabian. 

Their new technique will enable the astronomers to map out the process in all its glorious complexity, taking them to previously unseen regions at the very edges of this and other supermassive black holes.
  
Notes for editors:
 
‘The detection of Broad Iron K and L line emission in the Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 Galaxy 1H0707-495 using XMM-Newton’, by A. Fabian et al. will be published in Nature tomorrow.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

For the Muse song, see Supermassive Black Hole (song).

Top: artist’s conception of a supermassive black hole tearing apart a star. Bottom: images believed to show a supermassive black hole devouring a star in galaxy RXJ 1242-11. Left: X-ray image, Right: optical image.[1]

A supermassive black hole is a black hole with a mass of the order of between 105 and 1010 solar masses. Most, if not all, galaxies, including the Milky Way,[2] are believed to contain supermassive black holes at their centers.[3][4]

Supermassive black holes have properties which distinguish them from their relatively low-mass cousins:

  • The average density of a supermassive black hole (measured as the mass of the black hole divided by its Schwarzschild volume) can be very low, and may actually be lower than the density of air. This is because the Schwarzschild radius is directly proportional to mass, while density is inversely proportional to the volume. Since the volume of a spherical object (such as the event horizon of a non-rotating black hole) is directly proportional to the cube of the radius, and mass merely increases linearly, the volume increases at a greater rate than mass. Thus, average density decreases for increasingly larger radii of black holes.
  • The tidal forces in the vicinity of the event horizon are significantly weaker. Since the central singularity is so far away from the horizon, a hypothetical astronaut travelling towards the black hole center would not experience significant tidal force until very deep into the black hole.

Formation

An artist’s conception of a supermassive black hole & accretion disk. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

There are several models for the formation of black holes of this size. The most obvious is by slow accretion of matter starting from a black hole of stellar size. Another model [5] of supermassive black hole formation involves a large gas cloud collapsing into a relativistic star of perhaps a hundred thousand solar masses or larger. The star would then become unstable to radial perturbations due to electron-positron pair production in its core, and may collapse directly into a black hole without a supernova explosion, which would eject most of its mass and prevent it from leaving a supermassive black hole as a remnant. Yet another model [6] involves a dense stellar cluster undergoing core-collapse as the negative heat capacity of the system drives the velocity dispersion in the core to relativistic speeds. Finally, primordial black holes may have been produced directly from external pressure in the first instants after the Big Bang.

The difficulty in forming a supermassive black hole resides in the need for enough matter to be in a small enough volume. This matter needs to have very little angular momentum in order for this to happen. Normally the process of accretion involves transporting a large initial endowment of angular momentum outwards, and this appears to be the limiting factor in black hole growth, and explains the formation of accretion disks.

Currently, there appears to be a gap in the observed mass distribution of black holes. There are stellar-mass black holes, generated from collapsing stars, which range up to perhaps 33 solar masses. The minimal supermassive black hole is in the range of a hundred thousand solar masses. Between these regimes there appears to be a dearth of intermediate-mass black holes. Such a gap would suggest qualitatively different formation processes. However, some models [7] suggest that ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) may be black holes from this missing group.

Doppler measurements

Direct Doppler measures of water masers surrounding the nucleus of nearby galaxies have revealed a very fast keplerian motion, only possible with a high concentration of matter in the center. Currently, the only known objects that can pack enough matter in such a small space are black holes, or things that will evolve into black holes within astrophysically short timescales. For active galaxies farther away, the width of broad spectral lines can be used to probe the gas orbiting near the event horizon. The technique of reverberation mapping uses variability of these lines to measure the mass and perhaps the spin of the black hole that powers the active galaxy’s “engine”.

Such supermassive black holes in the center of many galaxies are thought to be the “engine” of active objects such as Seyfert galaxies and quasars.

Milky Way galactic center black hole

Astronomers are confident that our own Milky Way galaxy has a supermassive black hole at its center, in a region called Sagittarius A*[8] because:

  • The star S2 follows an elliptical orbit with a period of 15.2 years and a pericenter (closest distance) of 17 light hours from the central object.[9]
  • Early estimates indicated that the central object contains 2.6 million solar masses and has a radius of less than 17 light hours. Only a black hole can contain such a vast mass in such a small volume.
  • Further observations[10] strengthened the case for a black hole, by showing that the central object’s mass is about 3.7 million solar masses and its radius no more than 6.25 light-hours.

The Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics and UCLA Galactic Center Group[11] have provided the strongest evidence to date that Sagittarius A* is the site of a supermassive black hole,[8] based on data from the ESO[12] and the Keck telescope.[13] Our galactic central black hole is calculated to have a mass of approximately 4.1 million solar masses,[14] or about 8.2 × 1036 kg.

Supermassive black holes outside the Milky Way

It is now widely accepted that the center of nearly every galaxy contains a supermassive black hole.[15][16] The close observational correlation between the mass of this hole and the velocity dispersion of the host galaxy’s bulge, known as the M-sigma relation, strongly suggests a connection between the formation of the black hole and the galaxy itself.[15]

The explanation for this correlation remains an unsolved problem in astrophysics. It is believed that black holes and their host galaxies coevolved between 300-800 million years after the Big Bang, passing through a quasar phase and developing correlated characteristics, but models differ on the causality of whether black holes triggered galaxy formation or vice versa, and sequential formation cannot be excluded. The unknown nature of dark matter is a crucial variable in these models.[17][18]

At least one galaxy, Galaxy 0402+379, appears to have two supermassive black holes at its center, forming a binary system. Should these collide, the event would create strong gravitational waves. Binary supermassive black holes are believed to be a common consequence of galaxy mergers [19]. As of November 2008[update], another binary pair, in OJ 287, contains the most massive black hole known, with a mass estimated at 18 billion solar masses.[20]

Currently, there is no compelling evidence for massive black holes at the centers of globular clusters, or smaller stellar systems.[citation needed]

See also

INSANO – HARD DRUGS

Publicado: maio 26, 2009 por Yogi em Non Sense, Tudo

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  • 1820: André-Marie Ampère describes Ampere’s law showing that electric current produces a magnetic field
  • 1831: Michael Faraday describes Faraday’s law of induction, an important basic law of electromagnetism
  • 1864James Clerk Maxwell synthesizes the previous observations, experiments and equations of electricity, magnetism and optics into a consistent theory, andmathematically models the behavior of electromagnetic radiation.
  • 1888Heinrich Rudolf Hertz confirms the existence of electromagnetic radiation. Hertz’s “apparatus for generating electromagnetic waves” is generally acknowledged as the first radio transmitter.
  • 1891Nikola Tesla improves on Hertz’s primitive radio-frequency power supply in U.S. Patent No. 454,622, “System of Electric Lighting.”
  • 1893: Nikola Tesla demonstrates the illumination of phosphorescent bulbs wirelessly (without any wires connected to the bulbs) at the World’s Columbian Exposition inChicago.[citation needed]
  • 1894: Hutin & LeBlanc, espouse long held view that inductive energy transfer should be possible, they file a U.S. Patent describing a system for power transfer at 3 kHz
  • 1894: Nikola Tesla wirelessly lights up vacuum tubes at the 35 South Fifth Avenue and 46 E. Houston Street laboratory in New York by means of the electrodynamic resonance effects[citation needed]
  • 1894Jagdish Chandra Bose ignites gunpowder and rings a bell at a distance using electromagnetic waves, showing that communication signals can be sent without using wires.[3][4]
  • 1895: Jagdish Chandra Bose transmits signals over a distance of nearly a mile.[3][4]
  • 1897Guglielmo Marconi uses Hertz’s radio transmitter to transmit Morse code signals over a distance of about 6 km.
  • 1897: Nikola Tesla files the first of his patent applications dealing with Wardenclyffe tower.
  • 1899: It is claimed in Prodigal Genius that Nikola Tesla illuminated 200 bulbs wirelessly (without any wires connected to the bulbs) at a distance of 26 miles while working atPikes PeakColorado Springs. No documentation from Tesla’s records has been found that would confirm this actually happened. The first commercial transmission of AC occurred in 1896 over wires at a distance of 26 miles, which may be the source of this rumor.[5][6]
  • 1900: Guglielmo Marconi fails to get a patent for radio in the United States.
  • 1901: Guglielmo Marconi first transmits and receives signals across the Atlantic Ocean using Nikola Tesla’s wireless energy transmitter.
  • 1904: At the St. Louis World’s Fair, a prize is offered for a successful attempt to drive a 0.1 horsepower (75 W) air-ship motor by energy transmitted through space at a distance of least 100 feet (30 m).[7]
  • 1926Shintaro Uda and Hidetsugu Yagi publishes their first paper on Uda’s “tuned high-gain directional array”[8] better known as the Yagi antenna.
  • 1961William C. Brown publishes article that explores possibilities of microwave power transmission. [9][10]
  • 1964: William C. Brown demonstrated on CBS News with Walter Cronkite a microwave-powered model helicopter that received all the power needed for flight from a microwave beam. Between 1969 and 1975 Brown was technical director of a JPL Raytheon program that beamed 30 kW over a distance of 1 mile at 84% efficiency.
  • 1968Peter Glaser proposes wirelessly transferring Solar energy captured in Space using “Powerbeaming” technology [11][12].
  • 1971: Prof. Don Otto develops a small trolley powered by Inductive Power Transfer at The University of Auckland, in New Zealand.
  • 1973: World first passive RFID demonstrated at Los-Alamos National Lab. [13]
  • 1975Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex does experiments in the tens of kilowatts. [14][15][16]
  • 1988: A power electronics group led by Prof. John Boys at The University of Auckland in New Zealand, develops an inverter using novel engineering materials and power electronics and conclude that inductive power transmission should be achievable. A first prototype for a contact-less power supply is built. Auckland Uniservices, the commercial company of The University of Auckland, Patents the Technology.
  • 1989: Daifuku, a Japanese company, engages Auckland Uniservices Ltd to develop the technology for car assembly plants and materials handling providing challenging technical requirements including multiplicity of vehicles
  • 1990: Prof. John Boys team develops novel technology enabling multiple vehicles to run on the same inductive power loop and provide independent control of each vehicle. Auckland UniServices Patents the technology.
  • 1996: Auckland Uniservices develops an Electric Bus power system using Inductive Power Transfer to charge(30-60kW) opportunistically commencing implementation in New Zealand. Prof John Boys Team commission 1st commercial IPT Bus in the world at Whakarewarewa, in New Zealand.
  • 2004: Inductive Power Transfer used by 90 per cent of the US$1 billion clean room industry for materials handling equipment in semiconductor, LCD and plasma screen manufacture.
  • 2005: Prof Boys’ team at The University of Auckland, refines 3-phase IPT Highway and pick-up systems allowing transfer of power to moving vehicles in the lab
  • 2007: A physics research group, led by Prof. Marin Soljacic, at MIT confirm the earlier(1980’s) work of Prof. John Boys by wireless powering of a 60W light bulb with 40% efficiency at a 2m (7ft) distance using two 60 cm-diameter coils.
  • 2008: Bombardier offers new wireless transmission product PRIMOVE, a power system for use on trams and light-rail vehicles.[17]
  • 2008: Industrial designer Thanh Tran, at Brunel University made a wireless light bulb powered by a high efficiency 3W LED.
  • 2008Intel reproduces Nikola Tesla’s 1894 implementation and Prof. John Boys group’s 1988’s experiments by wirelessly powering a light bulb with 75% efficiency.[18]
  • MIT testa eletricidade sem fio

    Publicado: maio 25, 2009 por Yogi em Science, Tudo

    Felipe Zmoginski, do Plantão INFO

    SÃO PAULO – Um grupo de pesquisadores do MIT exibiu um experimento capaz de transmitir eletricidade sem fios.

     Os pesquisadores do Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) publicaram descrição da experiência na revista científica Science. Segundo a publicação, o grupo foi capaz de fazer acender uma lâmpada de 60W localizada há dois metros de distância da fonte de energia.

    A técnica que permite a transmissão sem fios baseia-se em criar dois campos magnéticos, um na fonte de energia, outro no aparelho que vai receber a eletricidade. Para criar tal campo, os pesquisadores desenvolveram pequenos conectores de cobre, que devem ser acoplados na fonte de energia (na tomada, por exemplo) e no objeto que receberá a eletricidade (a lâmpada, no caso).

    De acordo com a Science, os campos têm a mesma freqüência e, por isso, os dois objetos por ele ligados (lâmpada e tomada) passam a trocar energia entre si, numa freqüência que não afeta outros objetivos interpostos entre eles.

    Na revista, os cientistas dizem que a invenção é simples e poderia ter sido criada “há pelo menos 20 anos”. Agora, os pesquisadores querem avaliar se o sistema é seguro para a saúde humana.

    Da Época Negócios

    Nada de cabos, chega de pilhas, carregadores e fios. O conceito de eletricidade que viaja pelo ar para ligar equipamentos é uma das grandes apostas dos fabricantes de produtos eletroeletrônicos a partir de 2009. Batizada WiTricity, a energia sem fios será apresentada na edição da Consumer Electronics Show 2009, em Las Vegas.

    A feira, que acontece de 8 a 11 de janeiro, vai mostrar como a tecnologia WiTricity pode funcionar. Produtos como as molduras para fotos digitais e alto-falantes seriam os primeiros produtos da lista. 

    Segundo o jornal inglês The Guardian, a eletricidade caminharia pelo ar para laptops, iPods e outros gadgets sem a necessidade de cabos ou tomadas. Cafés e terminais de aeroportos que oferecem o sistema wireless (internet sem fio), poderiam ser os primeiros locais de teste da tecnologia.

    O editor do site Electripig, James Holland, disse ao jornal que consumidores poderiam comprar uma mesa que forneceria eletricidade para qualquer equipamento que ficasse sobre o tampo. 

    “Se cada ambiente tivesse energia sem fio, você saberia que no momento em que passasse pela porta, o seu telefone celular começaria a ser carregado – mesmo que estivesse na mala ou no seu bolso. Você nunca mais teria de perder tempo procurando um carregador”, disse Holland. 

    Entre as empresas que vão mostrar a tecnologia WiTricity na CES estão a PowerBeam, cujo sistema transforma eletricidade em um laser invisível, que literalmente se transforma em calor acionando células de energia solar que a convertem novamente em eletricidade. 

    David Graham, da PowerBeam, promete “apagar a palavra recarregar do dicionário”. 

    A empresa usa um laser para gerar 1.5 watts de energia para uma célula solar localizada a 10 metros de distância, o suficiente para gerar energia para um alto-falante ou luzes. Ainda não é suficiente para um laptop, que precisaria de 30 a 50 watts. Mas os especialistas acreditam que isso logo seria possível. 

    A empresa garante que a WiTricity será eficiente para carregar todos os aparelhos necessários – e somente quando necessário. As ondas eletromagnéticas e emissões de energia seriam captadas apenas pelos aparelhos desenhados para interagir com o WiTricity. 

    A tecnologia foi criada e testada pelos Departamento de Física, Engenharia Elétrica, Nanotecnologia e Ciência da Computação do Massachussetts Institute of Technology (MIT), nos Estados Unidos. Liderada pelo Prof. Marin Soljacic, a equipe formada por Andre Kurs, Aristeidis Karalis, Robert Moffatt, Prof. Peter Fisher e pelo Prof. John Joannopoulos demonstrou que a emissão de eletricidade podia acender uma lâmpada do outro lado da sala.

     Assista a um vídeo que explica a tecnologia WiTricity no YouTube.

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