Posts com Tag ‘fusion’

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  • 1820: André-Marie Ampère describes Ampere’s law showing that electric current produces a magnetic field
  • 1831: Michael Faraday describes Faraday’s law of induction, an important basic law of electromagnetism
  • 1864James Clerk Maxwell synthesizes the previous observations, experiments and equations of electricity, magnetism and optics into a consistent theory, andmathematically models the behavior of electromagnetic radiation.
  • 1888Heinrich Rudolf Hertz confirms the existence of electromagnetic radiation. Hertz’s “apparatus for generating electromagnetic waves” is generally acknowledged as the first radio transmitter.
  • 1891Nikola Tesla improves on Hertz’s primitive radio-frequency power supply in U.S. Patent No. 454,622, “System of Electric Lighting.”
  • 1893: Nikola Tesla demonstrates the illumination of phosphorescent bulbs wirelessly (without any wires connected to the bulbs) at the World’s Columbian Exposition inChicago.[citation needed]
  • 1894: Hutin & LeBlanc, espouse long held view that inductive energy transfer should be possible, they file a U.S. Patent describing a system for power transfer at 3 kHz
  • 1894: Nikola Tesla wirelessly lights up vacuum tubes at the 35 South Fifth Avenue and 46 E. Houston Street laboratory in New York by means of the electrodynamic resonance effects[citation needed]
  • 1894Jagdish Chandra Bose ignites gunpowder and rings a bell at a distance using electromagnetic waves, showing that communication signals can be sent without using wires.[3][4]
  • 1895: Jagdish Chandra Bose transmits signals over a distance of nearly a mile.[3][4]
  • 1897Guglielmo Marconi uses Hertz’s radio transmitter to transmit Morse code signals over a distance of about 6 km.
  • 1897: Nikola Tesla files the first of his patent applications dealing with Wardenclyffe tower.
  • 1899: It is claimed in Prodigal Genius that Nikola Tesla illuminated 200 bulbs wirelessly (without any wires connected to the bulbs) at a distance of 26 miles while working atPikes PeakColorado Springs. No documentation from Tesla’s records has been found that would confirm this actually happened. The first commercial transmission of AC occurred in 1896 over wires at a distance of 26 miles, which may be the source of this rumor.[5][6]
  • 1900: Guglielmo Marconi fails to get a patent for radio in the United States.
  • 1901: Guglielmo Marconi first transmits and receives signals across the Atlantic Ocean using Nikola Tesla’s wireless energy transmitter.
  • 1904: At the St. Louis World’s Fair, a prize is offered for a successful attempt to drive a 0.1 horsepower (75 W) air-ship motor by energy transmitted through space at a distance of least 100 feet (30 m).[7]
  • 1926Shintaro Uda and Hidetsugu Yagi publishes their first paper on Uda’s “tuned high-gain directional array”[8] better known as the Yagi antenna.
  • 1961William C. Brown publishes article that explores possibilities of microwave power transmission. [9][10]
  • 1964: William C. Brown demonstrated on CBS News with Walter Cronkite a microwave-powered model helicopter that received all the power needed for flight from a microwave beam. Between 1969 and 1975 Brown was technical director of a JPL Raytheon program that beamed 30 kW over a distance of 1 mile at 84% efficiency.
  • 1968Peter Glaser proposes wirelessly transferring Solar energy captured in Space using “Powerbeaming” technology [11][12].
  • 1971: Prof. Don Otto develops a small trolley powered by Inductive Power Transfer at The University of Auckland, in New Zealand.
  • 1973: World first passive RFID demonstrated at Los-Alamos National Lab. [13]
  • 1975Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex does experiments in the tens of kilowatts. [14][15][16]
  • 1988: A power electronics group led by Prof. John Boys at The University of Auckland in New Zealand, develops an inverter using novel engineering materials and power electronics and conclude that inductive power transmission should be achievable. A first prototype for a contact-less power supply is built. Auckland Uniservices, the commercial company of The University of Auckland, Patents the Technology.
  • 1989: Daifuku, a Japanese company, engages Auckland Uniservices Ltd to develop the technology for car assembly plants and materials handling providing challenging technical requirements including multiplicity of vehicles
  • 1990: Prof. John Boys team develops novel technology enabling multiple vehicles to run on the same inductive power loop and provide independent control of each vehicle. Auckland UniServices Patents the technology.
  • 1996: Auckland Uniservices develops an Electric Bus power system using Inductive Power Transfer to charge(30-60kW) opportunistically commencing implementation in New Zealand. Prof John Boys Team commission 1st commercial IPT Bus in the world at Whakarewarewa, in New Zealand.
  • 2004: Inductive Power Transfer used by 90 per cent of the US$1 billion clean room industry for materials handling equipment in semiconductor, LCD and plasma screen manufacture.
  • 2005: Prof Boys’ team at The University of Auckland, refines 3-phase IPT Highway and pick-up systems allowing transfer of power to moving vehicles in the lab
  • 2007: A physics research group, led by Prof. Marin Soljacic, at MIT confirm the earlier(1980’s) work of Prof. John Boys by wireless powering of a 60W light bulb with 40% efficiency at a 2m (7ft) distance using two 60 cm-diameter coils.
  • 2008: Bombardier offers new wireless transmission product PRIMOVE, a power system for use on trams and light-rail vehicles.[17]
  • 2008: Industrial designer Thanh Tran, at Brunel University made a wireless light bulb powered by a high efficiency 3W LED.
  • 2008Intel reproduces Nikola Tesla’s 1894 implementation and Prof. John Boys group’s 1988’s experiments by wirelessly powering a light bulb with 75% efficiency.[18]
  •  

    No momento em que escrevo há bastante nervosismo na Esplanada, coração da República e da cidade onde moro, com a prisão do banqueiro Daniel Dantas. Motivos de sobra para tanto nervosismo o jornalista Bob Fernandes aponta em artigo publicado na revista eletrônica Terra Magazine [1]. Numa dessas irônicas coincidências, no aniversário da Revolução Constitucionalista de 1932, logo após o presidente do Supremo Tribunal Federal, responsável por guardar e interpretar a Constituição, ter exibido algum do seu, perante câmeras de telejornais.

     

    Mas é uma outra exibição, passada sem interesse da mídia no dia seguinte, que será mote destas reflexões: a de um senador que vem cumprindo um papel tipo “venha-a-nós”, para acalmar os que se indignaram e se alarmaram com dispositivos abusivos na proposta de lei contra “crimes informáticos” que estava a ponto de ser votada pelo plenário do Senado. Ou para acalmar os que desconfiaram do modo peculiar de debate e tramitação dessa proposta, das quais ele se fez coadjuvante [2]. O senador perdeu a calma ao responder a uma silenciosa manifestação desta indignação e alarme, enrolando-se na bandeira do combate à pedofilia, durante a abertura do Fórum de Inclusão Digital que ocorria Brasília [3]. Uma exibição dificilmente compatível com este papel.

    No que se refere ao produto em questão, encomendado para ser entregue ao ordenamento jurídico pátrio num prazo ou que relaxa ou se esgota com todo esse nervosismo, alguns sinais teriam aberto espaço para este seu papel e para alguma acomodação. Pero no mucho. O relator firmou-se em manter um certo dispositivo, um que pode induzir provedores de internet a se tornarem ciberagentes policiais (proposta de inciso III ao art. 22). Enquanto escrevo este artigo a matéria atropelou a pauta, foi aprovada no plenário do Senado e volta à Câmara, para uma tramitação que promete, digamos, continuar curiosa. A começar por se saber quem, afinal, no Senado conhecia a versão na qual votou. Sobre isto não podemos saber muito. Mas podemos, pelo menos, perquirir o por quê desse dispositivo imexível, nessa tramitação trepidante.

    Um provedor, conforme insiste o relator, terá que saber quais crimes são passíveis de acionamento penal público incondicionado, e quais não o são, para saber quando repassar, ou não, denúncia da qual tomar conhecimento, se não quiser se tornar ele mesmo enquadradável como criminoso. Sabe alguém dizer quais tipos de crime são assim passíveis, e quais não o são? (eu ainda não encontrei quem pudesse me responder). Ou seja, na prática, acabará valendo o efeito: denuncia-se qualquer suspeita. O que transformará provedores em capatazes do escravagismo digital proprietário prenunciado por um outro dispositivo, proposto para o art. 285 do Código Penal [4]. Provedores de Internet terão que agir como cibercapatazes, e, a partir da suas automatizadas denúncias, o Estado poderá, legalmente, perseguir o que lhe convier. Inclusive crimes tipificados, na proposta, por norma penal em branco a ser preenchida por interesses privados atuando na esfera virtual.

    No episódio XII dos “Sapos Piramidais“, apresentado no 9º FISL, o destaque foi para o “forum shifting“: quando interesses monopolistas e/ou totalitaristas promovem uma iniciativa de radicalização normativa em um fórum internacional (OMC, OMPI, UE, ALCA, etc.), e tal iniciativa se vê neutralizada, atrasada ou atolada por mobilização no terceiro setor, na periferia do capitalismo ou por alianças entre tais (ex.: TRIPS+ na OMC, SCCR na OMPI, patentes de software na UE, subsídios na ALCA), os interessados na radicalização abandonam o Fórum e se reagrupam, fundando ou “sequestrando” outro fórum. A novidade passa a ser, como no fórum demandado pela RIAA — o ACTA [11] –, que as negociações podem recomeçar secretamente, e serem assim levadas até onde possível [5]. 

    Autoridades do comércio de alguns países centrais que participam do ACTA querem, pelo pouco que se sabe do que já vazou, reforçar uma das metas buscadas pelos negociadores da convenção de Budapeste, qual seja, a de transformar provedores em cibercapatazes [6]. Trata-se de uma medida capaz de diluir o custo da eficácia normativa na esfera virtual, e que desconsidera efeitos colaterais. Tal como no anterior ciclo escravagista, na esfera laboral. Um capataz é um ente privado capaz de fazer, contra quem dele depende, justiça com suas próprias mãos salvo quando esta desfavoreça um interesse maior, que para isso o coage e/ou o protege. Pela proposta, provedor que não repassar denúncia de crime passível de acionamento penal público incondicionado — o que quer que venha a ser isso — seria (ou será) também criminoso.

    Na conveção de Budapeste, os interesses radicalizantes ali representados foram de entidades policiais dos países centrais do capitalismo, para os quais a grande ameaça é à riqueza representada por bens intangíveis. O controle sobre a apropriação destes bens vem se erodindo, com a crescente perda de eficácia dos mecanismos de manutenção de escassez artificial na esfera virtual necessários a tal apropriação. A erosão desta escassez artifical e virtual os assusta, enquanto o aumento de uma escassez real, ocorrendo na esfera material com energia e com alimentos, não lhes interessa. Pelo menos não diretamente.

    A escassez virtual segue erodindo, e a escassez material segue crescendo, sem que os interesses representados por essas entidades policiais tenham poder de persuasão normativa suficiente para alterar o quadro geral em ritmo hábil. Eles têm menos poder do que os grandes interesses comerciais pós-industriais, que por sua vez deles precisam para dar eficácia a suas normas de “livre-comércio”. Os dois tipos de interesse, então, logicamente confluem. Defende-se lá, no ACTA, o que se pede aqui, à guisa da convenção de Budapeste. Dentre as confluências importantes, a “capatazização” dos provedores. Buscada agora com maior poder de persuasão, passível de sanções comerciais (bancadas por projeção militar) contra recalcitrantes. Via novas normas a serem ditadas, e logo [9], pelo ACTA. Há nisso duas lições, e uma dúvida.

    A primeira lição dá sentido a um comentário que o senador relator da matéria proferiu no seminário da Câmara onde se discutiu sua proposta de substitutivo em 2006 [10]: que não adianta resistir à sua proposta, pois as mudanças normativas que ela propõe uma hora virão, de uma forma ou de outra. A segunda lição é sobre como podem convergir os interesses que movem sua proposta e aqueles comuns entre os bilderbergers, para os quais um governo global e totalitário, consentido ou oculto, será útil e/ou inevitável. São lições que também deixam muitas pessoas nervosas, algumas por razões opostas ao da visão de um banqueiro em algemas. Razões que podem levá-los a desqualificar o contéudo dessas lições como bravata, paranóia, conspiracionismo; e o conteúdo da proposta, como inevitável, inapelável, infugível.

    Se, contudo, tais lições forem significativas, então bandeiras de camuflagem serão úteis e importantes nesse estágio do processo de radicalização normativa globalizada. Bandeiras tais como “guerra ao terrorismo” ou “combate à pedofilia”, esta a preferida pelo marketing que promove o dito substitutivo. Como indica a disputa política em torno dela, na CPI hora em curso sobre o tema e em projetos de lei concorrentes, à luz do conteúdo de seus dispositivos a respeito [8]. Resta a dúvida: sobre onde se inovaria mais, em se tratando de legislar à sorrelfa. Sobre onde tudo isso vai dar, não deve restar dúvida: está às claras no final do mais antigo e circulado dos livros. 

    Prof. Pedro Antônio Dourado de Rezende *
    Departamento de Ciência da Computação 
    Universidade de Brasília
    9 a 10 de julho de 2008

     

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    A tornado in central Oklahoma. Weather control researchers aspire to eliminate or control dangerous types of weather such as this.

    Weather control is the act of manipulating or altering certain aspects of the environment to produce desirable changes in weather.

    Contents

     

    History of weather control

    Witches concoct a brew to summon a hailstorm.

    Some American Indians had rituals which they believed could induce rain. The Finnish people, on the other hand, were believed by others to be able to control weather. As a result, Vikings refused to take Finns on their oceangoing raids. Remnants of this superstition lasted into the twentieth century, with some ship crews being reluctant to accept Finnish sailors. The early modern era saw people observe that during battles the firing of cannons and other firearms often initiated precipitation. Magical and religiouspractices to control the weather are attested in a variety of cultures. In Greek mythologyIphigenia was sacrificed as a human sacrifice to appease the wrath of the goddessArtemis, who had caused the Achaean fleet to be becalmed at Aulis at the beginning of the Trojan War. In Homer‘s OdysseyAeolus, keeper of the winds, bestowedOdysseus and his crew with a gift of the four winds in a bag. However, the sailors open the bag while Odysseus slept, looking for booty, and as a result are blown off course by the resulting gale.[1] In ancient Rome, the lapis manalis was a sacred stone kept outside the walls of Rome in a temple of Mars. When Rome suffered from drought, the stone was dragged into the city.[2] The Berwick witches of Scotland were found guilty of using black magic to summon storms to murder King James VI of Scotland by seeking to sink the ship upon which he travelled.[3] Scandinavian witches allegedly claimed to sell the wind in bags or magically confined into wooden staves; they sold the bags to seamen who could release them when becalmed.[4] In various towns of Navarreprayers petitioned Saint Peter to grant rain in time of drought. If the rain was not forthcoming, the statue of St Peter was removed from the church and tossed into a river.[5] In the Middle AgesAbbas Ibn Firnas invented an artificial weather simulation room in which spectators saw and were astonished by starsclouds, artificial thunder, and lightning which were produced by mechanisms hidden in his basement laboratory.[6]

    Perhaps the first example of practical weather control is the lightning rod. In the 1950s, computer scientist John von Neumann, an early theorizer on weather control, surmised that if Earth were to enter another Ice Age, a preventative solution would be to dump dirt (or spray soot from cropdusting planes) on the surface of the planet’s glaciers. He noted that this would significantly change their reflectivity (albedo), and thus increase the solar energy retained by the planet. Such a strategy would require repeated applications, as storms would cover some portion of the soot with new snow until their frequency and range abated. The theoretical efficacy of von Neumann’s proposal remains to be examined. Wilhelm Reichperformed cloudbusting experiments in the 1950s to 1960s, the results of which are controversial and not widely accepted by mainstream science. Dr Walter Russell wrote of weather control in Atomic Suicide 1956. Jack Toyer in the 1970s built a rainmaker on Palmers Island near Grafton using a solar mirror, electromagnetic static charge, and infra red frequencies of light to induce weather in regional areas within Australia. His work was continued by his successor, Peter Stevens.

    Cloud seeding for rain

    Cloud seeding is a common technique intended to trigger rain, but evidence on its effectiveness is mixed. The most daunting problem in the study of weather modification is the lack of scientific knowledge on the natural atmospheric processes. Because these natural processes are beyond man’s current comprehension, there is simply no controllable medium to conduct relative studies known as of yet. And because of the public’s ever growing need for more water, there has also been a rapid development of corporations that perform unregulated operational cloud seeding. Critics generally contend that claimed successes occur in conditions which were going to rain anyway. It is used in several different countries, including the United States, the People’s Republic of China, and Russia. In the People’s Republic of China there is a perceived dependency upon it in dry regions, which believe they are increasing annual rainfall by firing silver iodide rockets into the sky where rain is desired. In the United States, dry ice or silver iodide may be injected into a cloud by aircraft, or from the ground, in an attempt to increase rainfall; some companies are dedicated to this form of weather modification.

    Storm prevention

    Project Stormfury was an attempt to weaken tropical cyclones by flying aircraft into storms and seeding the eyewall with silver iodide. The project was run by the United States Government from 1962 to 1983. A similar project using soot was run in 1958, with inconclusive results.[7] Various methods have been proposed to reduce the harmful effects of hurricanes. Moshe Alamaro of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology[8] proposed using barges with upward-pointing jet engines to trigger smaller storms to disrupt the progress of an incoming hurricane; critics doubt the jets would be powerful enough to make any noticeable difference.[7]

    Alexandre Chorin of the University of California at Berkeley proposed dropping large amounts of environmentally friendly oils on the sea surface to prevent droplet formation.[9] Experiments by Kerry Emanuel[10] of MIT in 2002 suggested that hurricane-force winds would disrupt the oil slick, making it ineffective.[11] Other scientists disputed the factual basis of the theoretical mechanism assumed by this approach.[12] The Florida company Dyn-O-Mat proposes the use of a product it has developed, called Dyn-O-Gel, to reduce the strength of hurricanes. The substance is a polymer in powder form which reportedly has the ability to absorb 1,500 times its own weight in water. The theory is that the polymer is dropped into clouds to remove their moisture and force the storm to use more energy to move the heavier water drops, thus helping to dissipate the storm. When the gel reaches the ocean surface, it is reportedly dissolved. The company has tested the substance on a thunderstorm, but there has not been any scientific consensus established as to its effectiveness.[13] Hail cannons are used by some farmers in an attempt to ward off hail, but there is no reliable scientific evidence to confirm or deny their effectiveness. Another new anti-hurricane technology [1] is a method for the reduction of tropical cyclones’ destructive force – pumping sea water into and diffusing it in the wind at the bottom of such tropical cyclone in its eyewall.

    2008 Olympic games

    In the largest rain dispersal operation on record in China, and the first time that such technology was used in conjunction with the Olympics, the Beijing Municipal Meteorological Bureau fired a total of 1,104rain dispersal rockets within an eight-hour period prior to and during the opening ceremonies of the Games of the XXIX Olympiad on August 8, 2008. The rockets were launched from twenty-one sites and may have prevented the ceremonies from receiving rainfall in the range of 25 to 100 millimeters of rain.

    With a rainy weather forecast for the Olympic night, and 90% humidity, the attempt “successfully intercepted a stretch of rain belt from moving towards the stadium…” said Guo Hu, head of the Beijing Municipal Meteorological Bureau. “…”Under such a weather condition, a small bubble in the rain cloud would have triggered rainfall, let alone a lightning…” said Guo, according to Xinhua News’ 2008 Olympics website.In the subsequent days that followed torrential rain nearly washed the games out.

    Ionospheric experiments

    The High-frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) is a congressionally initiated program jointly managed by the U.S. Air Force and U.S. Navy. The HAARP complex is situated within a 23-acre lot in a relatively isolated region near the town of Gakona. When the final phase of the project is completed in 1997, the military will have erected 180 towers, 72 feet in height, forming a “high-power, high frequency phased array radio transmitter” capable of beaming in the 2.5-10 megahertz frequency range, at more than 3 gigawatts of power (3 billion watts). http://www.haarp.alaska.edu/haarp/prpeis.html

    HIPAS has several diverse experimental facilities: a 1-megawatt rf transmitter to produce ELF/VLF (Extremely Low Frequency and Very Low Frequency) electromagnetic (EM) generation by the absorption ofradio frequency (rf) power in the arctic ionosphere including ion cyclotron excitation; a 100 kW rf plasma torch used in research on the destruction of hazardous waste; a 2.7 m liquid mirror telescope used with one of several lasers for ionospheric stimulation and measurement; an Incoherent Scatter Radar (a new project using 88 ft. diameter antenna at NOAA Gilmore Creek site 34 km SW of HIPAS as the receiving antenna with the transmitter at HIPAS). HIPAS is in the process of adding a very high power (terawatt) laser (recently obtained from LLNL) to perform laser breakdown experiments in the ionosphere. Two Diesel electric generators (1500 HP 4160 V, 3-phase, 1.2 MVA each) are used to power the experiments. There are a number of computers (PC’s ) on site, and a high-speed data line to UAF is available. While these experiments are useful in measuring the properties of the ionosphere, they produce insufficient amounts of energy to modify it in any significant way. however hotspots can be created within the ionospehere where this radiation is focused, temperatures can be elevated by up to 1600`k causing expansion of the ionosphere and subsequent changes in pressure and temperature, which in turn lead to changes in the global meteorology.

    Weather control and law

    1977 Environmental Modification Convention

    Weather control, as well as “weather tampering”, for hostile or military purposes is expressly forbidden dating from at least December 10, 1976, when the “United Nations General Assembly Resolution 31/72, TIAS 9614 Convention[14] on the Prohibition of Military or Any Other Hostile Use of Environmental Modification Techniques” was adopted. The Convention was: Signed in Geneva May 18, 1977; Entered into force October 5, 1978; Ratification by U.S. President December 13, 1979; U.S. ratification deposited at New York January 17, 1980.[15]

    Space Preservation Act Title: To preserve the cooperative, peaceful uses of space for the benefit of all humankind by permanently prohibiting the basing of weapons in space by the United States, and to require the President to take action to adopt and implement a world treaty banning space-based weapons. Sponsor: Rep Kucinich, Dennis J. http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/z?c107:H.R.2977.IH: The bill originally mentioned chemtrails and H.A.A.R.P.,but was modified and resubmitted as H.R.3616 and H.R.2440. H.R. 2977 Space Preservation Act of 2001 introduced October 2, 2001, 107th Congress, 1st Session. The bill was referred to committee and no further action ensued. H.R. 3616 Space Preservation Act of 2002 introduced January 23, 2002, 107th Congress, 2d Session. The bill was referred to committee and no further action ensued. H.R. 2420 Space Preservation Act of 2005 introduced May 18, 2005, 109th Congress, 1st Session, with 34 co-sponsors (see accompanying list). The bill was referred to committee and no further action ensued. http://www.sourcewatch.org/index.php?title=Space_Preservation_Act

    2005 U.S. Senate Bill 517 and U.S. House Bill 2995

    U.S. Senate Bill 517[16] and U.S. House Bill 2995[17] were two laws proposed in 2005 that would have allowed experimental weather modification by artificial methods, attempted to establish a Weather Modification Operations and Research Board, and implemented a national weather modification policy. Neither ever became law.

    U.S. Senate Bill 1807 & U.S. House Bill 3445 Senate Bill 1807 and House Bill 3445, identical bills introduced July 17, 2007, propose to establish a Weather Mitigation Advisory and Research Board to federally fund weather modification research http://tlp.law.pitt.edu/SP_DiLorenzo_Weather%20Modification.htm sponsored by Kay Bailey Hutcheson and Mark Udall. http://www.govtrack.us/congress/bill.xpd?bill=s110-1807

    Future aspirations

    Climatologist Ross Hoffman has simulated hurricane control based on selective heating and cooling (or prevention of evaporation).[18] Futurist John Smart has discussed the potential for weather control via space-based solar power networks. One proposal involves the gentle heating via microwave of portions of large hurricanes. Such chaotic systems may be susceptible to “side steering” with a few degrees of increased temperature/pressure at critical points. A sufficient network might keep the largest and most potentially damaging hurricanes from landfall, at the request of host nations. Blizzards, monsoons, and other extreme weather are also potential candidates for space-based amelioration.[citations needed] If large-scale weather control were to become feasible, potential implications may include:

    • Unintended side effects, especially given the chaotic nature of weather development
    • Damage to existing ecosystems
    • Health risks to humans
    • Equipment malfunction or accidents
    • Non-democratic control or use as a weapon

    For the 2008 Olympics, China had 30 airplanes, 4,000 rocket launchers, and 7,000 anti-aircraft guns to stop rain. Each system would shoot various chemicals into any threatening clouds to shrink rain drops before they reach the stadium.[19]

    Weather control in popular culture

    In popular culture, weather control technology can be encountered in the realms of public speculation, science fiction, and fantasy. The concept of weather control is often portrayed as a part of terraforming.

    Film and television

    Star Trek

    • In the Star Trek universe, most advanced planets and colonies utilize weather control, often referred to as weather modification grids or weather modification nets. A small, but long-established TNG-era (ca2369) colony was a weather control facility for approximately a hundred years. Most advanced civilizations apparently employ weather control standard equipment.
    • Weather control technology in 2270s required special facilities, modern TNG– and DS9-era technology consists of multiple mid-size devices positioned strategically, networked and controlled from more-or-less arbitrary places.
    • For example, the planet Risa has its climate controlled to be a tropical paradise. Perhaps one of the few modern exceptions of planets apparently without weather control technology is Ferenginar with continuous rain.

    Other films or shows

    • In the Sci Fi Channel original series, Stargate SG1, Episode 214, “Touchstone“, aired on October 30, 1998, the Stargate SG1 team discovers a weather control device on an alien planet, which is subsequently stolen and brought to earth, where experimenting with it wreaked havoc with the local weather. The device was later recaptured and returned to its original planet which had suffered phenomenal storms since it had been stolen.
    • In the Disney Channel Original MovieThe Ultimate Christmas Present, two girls find a weather machine and make it snow in Los Angeles.
    • In the live action Justice League of America film, the villain is a terrorist who has a weather control device.
    • In Aliens, a colony sent to LV-426 by the Company utilized a fusion-powered terraforming atmosphere processor. In the first film, the planet’s climate was not yet suitable for human life.
    • In The Arrival, a race of aliens is found to be terraforming the Earth using hidden factories producing huge volumes of highly potent, engineered “super-greenhouse gases”.
    • In the 1987 Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles cartoon series, the episode “Hot Rodding Teenagers from Dimension X” includes Stone Warriors using a “weather satellite“, with one difference: while other weather satellite gives weather prognosis, this one “makes weather”. The “weather satellite” creates a storm to level New York City, but the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles destroy it. The episode “Take Me to Your Leader” of the same series include Krang and the Shredder using a machine to reduce the Sun, creating cold weather on the Earth.
    • Storm (played by Halle Berry in the 2000 film and subsequent sequels), a member of the X-Men, can control the weather with her mind.
    • In Superman IIIGus Gorman (Richard Pryor) changes the weather by hacking into a weather satellite.
    • In a Family Guy episode, Stewie builds a machine that can control the weather using only a satellite dish and a See ‘n Say.
    • In the film The Avengers Sir August de Wynter (Sean Connery) creates a satellite capable of controlling the weather.
    • Our Man Flint is a 1966 sci-fi action film which stars James Coburn as Derek Flint where a trio of mad scientists attempt to blackmail the world with a weather-control machine.
    • Kaijûtô no kessen: Gojira no musuko is a 1967 film from Japan. Scientists, on a tropical island, conduct weather control experiments then encounter gigantic praying mantises and a giant spider that attack the son of Godzilla. Godzilla arrives and saves his offspring.
    • The cartoon miniseries G.I. Joe: The Revenge of Cobra, showed the terrorist group Cobra in possession of a device called the Weather Dominator.
    • American Daytime soap opera General Hospital featured a storyline where mad genius Mikkos Cassadine used a substance called Carbonic Snow to create a blizzard in the show’s locale Port Charles in the middle of what had been a long hot summer in order to blackmail world leaders into accepting his new world order. Luke Spencer managed to thwart the plan.
    • In WALL-E, the Megacorporation known as Buy N Large, had established a Global Weather Control System, the system was made of satellites that would change and control the weather in the areas that they were in. The system worked so well that soon Buy N Large even launched a program in which citizens can book certain weather in the areas where they live. Such as, scheduling a Thunderstorm during a parade so that it will literally “rain on their parade.”
    • In the sci-fi drama series Heroes, Angela Petrelli’s long-lost sister, Alice Shaw, was revealed to be able to control weather.

    Computer games

    • In Master Of Orion, it is possible to build a weather control building to change the planet’s environment.
    • In Command & Conquer: Red Alert 2 and Command & Conquer: Yuri’s Revenge Expansion Pack, the Allies can build the weather control device superweapon, and direct thunderstorms to strike a selected location of the map every 10 minutes.
    • In Tribunal, an expansion pack to The Elder Scrolls III: Morrowind, the player finds a machine under the city of Almalexia that can change the weather of the city at the will of its user.
    • In Phantasy Star II, a weather, irrigation and dam control system known as Climatrol has been constructed by Mother Brain to make the barren planet Motavia habitable for Palman occupation.
    • In the game Spore by Will Wright, players are able to use a spacecraft to modify planetary atmospheres – creating volcanoes to generate carbon dioxide, seeding plant life to create breathable air, or even using a “Genesis device” to make a planet habitable in one go. There is no actual controlling of weather, however.[20]
    • In “Earth 2150“, the Lunar Corporation are capable of building a weather control station for tactical weather control. The structure can be charged to cause storms, fog, and/or wind at targeted areas on the map.
    • In Fable 2 Knothole island Expansion, the player can control weather by obtaining weather crystals and using them in a weather chamber, 3 crystals represent sun,rain and snow.
    • in The Sims 2 seasons Expansion, players can use a season changing device to make a certain season permanent or prolong a desired season for a number of in-game days.

    Prose

    • Ben Bova‘s The Weathermakers is the story of a government agency that controls the weather.
    • Sidney Sheldon‘s Are You Afraid of the Dark is the story of a think tank that builds technology powerful enough to create hurricanes, tornadoes, and tsunamis.
    • In Michael Crichton‘s State of Fear, ecoterrorists plan to create a tsunami, calve an iceberg, and induce flash flooding and hurricanes.
    • In Normand Lester’s science thriller Verglas, the 1998 icestorm that struck the Montréal area is an experiment by the Pentagon in the development of a climatic weapon that went wrong. The book speculate that ULF waves generated by a transmitter at Siple Station, a US base in Antarctica, caused the icestorm by affecting the ionosphere over Québec.
    • In Lois Lowry‘s The Giver, the government controls the weather and keeps it from snowing, and confine rain to the farmland.
    • In the book series Weather Warden by Rachel Caine, the Wardens are an association of people who have the ability to control the elements – earth, fire and weather. They manipulate these elements to stop natural disasters from devastating mankind. The main character herself is a Weather Warden, so weather manipulation plays a large role throughout the series.
    • In Roger Zelazny‘s The Chronicles of Amber an openly known quality of the Jewel of Judgment is the ability to control the local weather.
    • In Frank Herbert‘s Dune series, weather control is widespread, and is achieved with specialized satellites in orbit around a planet.

    Music

    Other fictional weather controllers

    • DC Comics villain Weather Wizard could control the weather with a special kind of technology in the shape of a wand.
    • Marvel Comics heroes Thor and Storm could control weather; the former because he is the Norse god of thunder, the latter because she is a mutant whose powers specifically center around weather control.
    • Digimon character Wizardmon could manipulate thunderstorms.
    • When the Muppet Count von Count of Sesame Street laughs, it often invokes thunder.
    • In some of the Asterix comics, when the village bard Cacofonix sings, it starts to rain.
    • In the 2000 AD world of Judge Dredd the weather in Mega City One is controlled by a weather control station positioned above the populous and is used to spread a chemical which causes Block War by the city of East Meg One
    • In the Nintendo Gameboy Advance Video Game Pokemon Sapphire, The Pokemon “Kyogre” controlled the rain and the tides in Hoenn.
    • In the BIONICLE Saga, weather control is one of the many powers the Makuta species have.

    Conspiracy theories

    Conspiracy theorists have suggested that certain governments use or seek to use weather control as a weapon (eg via HAARP and/or chemtrails), but such allegations have not been proven. At a counterterrorism conference in 1997, United States Secretary of Defense William Cohen referred to the writings of futurist Alvin Toffler, specifically regarding concerns about “eco-terrorism” and intentionally caused natural disasters.[21]

    See also

    PARTE I

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    more about “JogyJogy – Видео Stephen Hawking and …“, posted with vodpod

     

    PARTE II

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    more about “Stephen Hawkins and the Theory of Eve…“, posted with vodpod

    Maximin in philosophy

    In philosophy, the term “maximin” is often used in the context of John Rawls‘s A Theory of Justice, where he refers to it (Rawls (1971, p. 152)) in the context of The Difference Principle. Rawls defined this principle as the rule which states that social and economic inequalities should be arranged so that “they are to be of the greatest benefit to the least-advantaged members of society”. In other words, an unequal distribution can be just when it maximizes the benefit to those who have the most minuscule allocation of welfare conferring resources (which he refers to as “primary goods”).[4][5]

    Veja o artigo da wikipedia sobre Minimax, em inglês, na íntegra.

    Veja o artigo da wikipedia sobre, em português, na íntegra.

     

    A Política Sem Legendas

    A Política Sem Legendas