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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Nonviolence is a philosophy and strategy for social change that rejects the use of physical violence. As such, nonviolence is an alternative to passive acceptance of oppression and armed struggle against it. Practitioners of nonviolence may use diverse methods in their campaigns for social change, including critical forms of education and persuasion, civil disobedience and nonviolent direct action, and targeted communication via mass media.

In modern times, nonviolence has been a powerful tool for social protest. Mahatma Gandhi led a decades-long nonviolent struggle against British rule in India, which eventually helped India win its independence in 1947. About 10 years later, Martin Luther King adopted Gandhi’s nonviolent methods in his struggle to win civil rights for African Americans. Then in the 1960s César Chávez organized a campaign of nonviolence to protest the treatment of farm workers in California. As Chavez once explained, “Nonviolence is not inaction. It is not for the timid or the weak. It is hard work, it is the patience to win.”[1] Another recent nonviolent movement was the “Velvet Revolution“, a nonviolent revolution in Czechoslovakia that saw the overthrow of the Communist government in 1989.[2] It is seen as one of the most important of the Revolutions of 1989.

The 14th and current Dalai Lama, Tenzin Gyatso. Dalai Lama said nonviolence is the only way progress can be made with China.[3][4]

The term “nonviolence” is often linked with or even used as a synonym for pacifism; however, the two concepts are fundamentally different. Pacifism denotes the rejection of the use of violence as a personal decision on moral or spiritual grounds, but does not inherently imply any inclination toward change on a sociopolitical level. Nonviolence on the other hand, presupposes the intent of (but does not limit it to) social or political change as a reason for the rejection of violence. Also, a person may advocate nonviolence in a specific context while advocating violence in other contexts.

Forms

Advocates of nonviolence believe cooperation and consent are the roots of political power: all regimes, including bureaucratic institutions, financial institutions, and the armed segments of society (such as the military and police); depend on compliance from citizens.[5] On a national level, the strategy of nonviolence seeks to undermine the power of rulers by encouraging people to withdraw their consent and cooperation. The forms of nonviolence draw inspiration from both religious or ethical beliefs and political analysis. Religious or ethically based nonviolence is sometimes referred to as principled, philosophical, or ethical nonviolence, while nonviolence based on political analysis is often referred to as tactical, strategic, or pragmatic nonviolence. Commonly, both of these dimensions may be present within the thinking of particular movements or individuals.[6]

Philosophical

Buddha, known for his theory of nonviolence

Mahavira,To liberate one’s self, Mahavira taught the necessity of right faith, right knowledge and right conduct. Right conduct includes five great vows out of which first is Nonviolence (Ahimsa) – to cause no harm to any living being in any manner

Love of the enemy, or the realization of the humanity of all people, is a fundamental concept of philosophical nonviolence. The goal of this type of nonviolence is not to defeat the enemy, but to win them over and create love and understanding between all.[7] It is this principle which is most closely associated with spiritual or religious justifications of nonviolence, the central tenets of which can be found in each of the major Abrahamic religious traditions (Islam, Judaism and Christianity) as well as in the major Dharmic religious traditions (Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism). It is also found in many pagan religious traditions. Nonviolent movements, leaders, and advocates have at times referred to, drawn from and utilised many diverse religious basis for nonviolence within their respective struggles. Examples of nonviolence found in religion and spirituality include the Sermon on the Mount when Jesus urges his followers to “love thine enemy,” in the Taoist concept of wu-wei, or effortless action, in the philosophy of the martial art Aikido, in the Buddhist principle of metta, or loving-kindness towards all beings; and in the principle of ahimsa, or nonviolence toward any being, shared by Buddhism, Jainism and some forms of Hinduism. Additionally, focus on both nonviolence and forgiveness of sin can be found in the story of Abel in the Qur’an; Liberal movements within Islam have consequently used this story to promote Jewish ideals of nonviolence.

Respect or love for opponents also has a pragmatic justification, in that the technique of separating the deeds from the doers allows for the possibility of the doers changing their behaviour, and perhaps their beliefs. Martin Luther King said, “Nonviolence means avoiding not only external physical violence but also internal violence of spirit. You not only refuse to shoot a man, but you refuse to hate him.”

Pragmatic

The fundamental concept of pragmatic nonviolence is to create a social dynamic or political movement that can effect social change without necessarily winning over those who wish to maintain the status quo.[7] In modern industrial democracies, nonviolence has been used extensively by political sectors without mainstream political power such as labor, peace, environment and women’s movements. Lesser known is the role that nonviolence has played and continues to play in undermining the power of repressive political regimes in the developing world and the former eastern bloc. Susan Ives emphasized this point with a quote from Walter Wink, “In 1989, thirteen nations comprising 1,695,000,000 people experienced nonviolent revolutions that succeeded beyond anyone’s wildest expectations… If we add all the countries touched by major nonviolent actions in our century (the Philippines, South Africa… the independence movement in India…) the figure reaches 3,337,400,000, a staggering 65% of humanity! All this in the teeth of the assertion, endlessly repeated, that nonviolence doesn’t work in the ‘real’ world.”[8]

As a technique for social struggle, nonviolence has been described as “the politics of ordinary people”, reflecting its historically mass-based use by populations throughout the world and history. Struggles most often associated with nonviolence are the non co-operation campaign for Indian independence led by Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, the struggle to attain civil rights for African Americans, led by Martin Luther King, and People Power in the Philippines.

Also of primary significance is the notion that just means are the most likely to lead to just ends. When Gandhi said that “the means may be likened to the seed, the end to a tree,” he expressed the philosophical kernel of what some refer to as prefigurative politics. Martin Luther King, a student of Gandhian non-violent resistance, concurred with this tenet of the method, concluding that “…nonviolence demands that the means we use must be as pure as the ends we seek.” Proponents of nonviolence reason that the actions taken in the present inevitably re-shape the social order in like form. They would argue, for instance, that it is fundamentally irrational to use violence to achieve a peaceful society. People have come to use nonviolent methods of struggle from a wide range of perspectives and traditions. A landless peasant in Brazil may nonviolently occupy a parcel of land for purely practical motivations. If they don’t, the family will starve. A Buddhist monk in Thailand may “ordain” trees in a threatened forest, drawing on the teachings of Buddha to resist its destruction. A waterside worker in England may go on strike in socialist and union political traditions. All the above are using nonviolent methods but from different standpoints. Likewise, secular political movements have utilised nonviolence, either as a tactical tool or as a strategic program on purely pragmatic and strategic levels, relying on its political effectiveness rather than a claim to any religious, moral, or ethical worthiness.

Gandhi used the weapon of non-violence against British Raj

Finally, the notion of Satya, or truth, is central to the Gandhian conception of nonviolence. Gandhi saw truth as something that is multifaceted and unable to be grasped in its entirety by any one individual. All carry pieces of the truth, he believed, but all need the pieces of others’ truths in order to pursue the greater truth. This led him to believe in the inherent worth of dialogue with opponents, in order to understand motivations. On a practical level, the willingness to listen to another’s point of view is largely dependent on reciprocity. In order to be heard by one’s opponents, one must also be prepared to listen.[citation needed]

Nonviolence has even obtained a level of institutional recognition and endorsement at the global level. On November 10, 1998, the United Nations General Assembly proclaimed the first decade of the 21st century and the third millennium, the years 2001 to 2010, as the International Decade for the Promotion of a Culture of Peace and Non-Violence for the Children of the World.

Living

The violence embedded in most of the world’s societies causes many to consider it an inherent part of human nature, but others (Riane Eisler, Walter Wink, Daniel Quinn) have suggested that violence – or at least the arsenal of violent strategies we take for granted – is a phenomenon of the last five to ten thousand years, and was not present in pre-domestication and early post-domestication human societies. This view shares several characteristics with the Victorian ideal of the Noble savage.

For many, practicing nonviolence goes deeper than withholding from violent behavior or words. It means caring in one’s heart for everyone, even those one strongly disagrees with, that is who are antithetical or opposed. For some, this principle entails a commitment to restorative or transformative justice and prison abolition. By extrapolation comes the necessity of caring for those who are not practicing nonviolence, who are violent. Of course no one can simply will themselves to have such care, and this is one of the great personal challenges posed by nonviolence – once one believes in nonviolence in theory, how can the person live it?

Animal rights

Nonviolence, for some, involves extending it to animals, usually through vegetarianism or veganism.

Methods

Martin Luther King

Nonviolent action generally comprises three categories: Acts of Protest and Persuasion, Noncooperation, and Nonviolent Intervention. [9]

Acts of protest

Nonviolent acts of protest and persuasion are symbolic actions performed by a group of people to show their support or disapproval of something. The goal of this kind of action is to bring public awareness to an issue, persuade or influence a particular group of people, or to facilitate future nonviolent action. The message can be directed toward the public, opponents, or people affected by the issue. Methods of protest and persuasion include speeches, public communications, petitions, symbolic acts, art, processions (marches), and other public assemblies.[10]

Noncooperation

Noncooperation involves the purposeful withholding of cooperation or the unwillingness to initiate in cooperation with an opponent. The goal of noncooperation is to halt or hinder an industry, political system, or economic process. Methods of noncooperation include labor strikes, economic boycotts, civil disobedience, tax refusal, and general disobedience.[10]

Nonviolent intervention

Nonviolent intervention, compared to protest and noncooperation, is a more direct method of nonviolent action. Nonviolent intervention can be used defensively—for example to maintain an institution or independent initiative—or offensively- for example to drastically forward a nonviolent struggle into the opponent’s territory. Intervention is often more immediate and effective than the other two methods, but is also harder to maintain and more taxing to the participants involved. Methods of intervention includes occupations (sit-ins), blockades, fasting (hunger strikes), truck cavalcades, and dual sovereignty/parallel government. [10]

Tactics must be carefully chosen, taking into account political and cultural circumstances, and form part of a larger plan or strategy. Gene Sharp, a political scientist and nonviolence activist, has written extensively about methods of nonviolence including a list of 198 methods of nonviolent action.[11] In early Greece, AristophanesLysistrata gives the fictional example of women withholding sexual favors from their husbands until war was abandoned. The deterrence of violent attack and promotion peaceful resolution of conflicts, as a method of intervention across borders, has occurred throughout history with some failures (at least on the level of deterring attack) such as the Human Shields in Iraq because it failed to ascertain the value of the goal compared with the value of human life in its context of war; but also many successes, such as the work of the Guatemala Accompaniment Project[12]. Several non-governmental organizations, including Peace Brigades International and Christian Peacemaker Teams, are working in this area . Their primary tactics are unarmed accompaniment, human rights observation, and reporting.[13][14]

Einstein was a strong supporter of nonviolence

Another powerful tactic of nonviolent intervention invokes public scrutiny of the oppressors as a result of the resisters remaining nonviolent in the face of violent repression. If the military or police attempt to violently repress nonviolent resisters, the power to act shifts from the hands of the oppressors to those of the resisters. If the resisters are persistent, the military or police will be forced to accept the fact that they no longer have any power over the resisters. Often, the willingness of the resisters to suffer has a profound effect on the mind and emotions of the oppressor, leaving them unable to commit such a violent act again. [15][16].

There are also many other leaders and theorists of nonviolence who have thought deeply about the spiritual and practical aspects of nonviolence, including: Leo Tolstoy, Lech Wałęsa, Petra Kelly, Nhat Hanh, Dorothy Day, Ammon Hennacy, Albert Einstein, John Howard Yoder, Stanley Hauerwas, David McReynolds, Johan Galtung, Martin Luther King, Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, Daniel Berrigan, Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan, Mario Rodríguez Cobos (pen name Silo) and César Chávez.

We will wear you down by our capacity to suffer.
— Martin Luther King, 1963[17]

Green politics

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Nonviolence has been a central concept in green political philosophy. It is included in the Global Greens Charter. Greens believe that society should reject the current patterns of violence and embrace nonviolence. Green Philosophy draws heavily on both Gandhi and the Quaker traditions, which advocate measures by which the escalation of violence can be avoided, while not cooperating with those who commit violence. These greens believe that the current patterns of violence are incompatible with a sustainable society because it uses up limited resources and many forms of violence, especially nuclear weapons, are damaging for the environment. Violence also diminishes one and the group.

Some green political parties, like the Dutch GroenLinks, evolved out of the cooperation of the peace movement with the environmental movement in their resistance to nuclear weapons and nuclear energy.

As Green Parties have moved from the fringes of society towards becoming more and more influential in government circles, this commitment to nonviolence has had to be more clearly defined. In many cases, this has meant that the party has had to articulate a position on non-violence that differentiates itself from classic pacifism. The leader of the German Greens, for example, was instrumental in the NATO intervention in Serbia, arguing that being in favor of nonviolence should never lead to passive acceptance of genocide. Similarly, Elizabeth May of the Green Party of Canada has stated that the Canadian intervention in Afghanistan is justified as a means of supporting women’s rights.

This movement by Green leadership has caused some internal dissension, as the traditional pacifist position is that there is no justification ever for committing violence.

Revolution

Certain individuals (Barbara Deming, Danilo Dolci, Devere Allen etc.) and party groups (eg. Committees of Correspondence for Democracy and Socialism, Democratic Socialists of America, Socialist Party USA, Socialist Resistance or War Resisters League) have advocated nonviolent revolution as an alternative to violence as well as elitist reformism. This perspective is usually connected to militant anti-capitalism.

Many leftist and socialist movements have hoped to mount a “peaceful revolution” by organizing enough strikers to completely paralyze it. With the state and corporate apparatus thus crippled, the workers would be able to re-organize society along radically different lines.[citation needed] Some have argued that a relatively nonviolent revolution would require fraternisation with military forces.[18]

Criticism

Leon Trotsky, Frantz Fanon, Reinhold Niebuhr, Subhash Chandra Bose, George Orwell, Ward Churchill[19] and Malcolm X were fervent critics of nonviolence, arguing variously that nonviolence and pacifism are an attempt to impose the morals of the bourgeoisie upon the proletariat, that violence is a necessary accompaniment to revolutionary change, or that the right to self-defense is fundamental.

Malcolm X criticised nonviolence

In the midst of violent repression of radical African Americans in the United States during the 1960s, Black Panther member George Jackson said of the nonviolent tactics of Martin Luther King, Jr.:

“The concept of nonviolence is a false ideal. It presupposes the existence of compassion and a sense of justice on the part of one’s adversary. When this adversary has everything to lose and nothing to gain by exercising justice and compassion, his reaction can only be negative.”[20][21]

Malcolm X also clashed with civil rights leaders over the issue of nonviolence, arguing that violence should not be ruled out where no option remained:

“I believe it’s a crime for anyone being brutalized to continue to accept that brutality without doing something to defend himself.”[22]

Lance Hill criticizes nonviolence as a failed strategy and argues that black armed self-defense and civil violence motivated civil rights reforms more than peaceful appeals to morality and reason (see Lance Hill’s “Deacons for Defense”)[23].

In his book How Nonviolence Protects the State, anarchist Peter Gelderloos criticizes nonviolence as being ineffective, racist, statist, patriarchal, tactically and strategical inferior to militant activism, and deluded.[24] Gelderloos claims that traditional histories whitewash the impact of nonviolence, ignoring the involvement of militants in such movements as the Indian independence movement and the Civil Rights movement and falsely showing Gandhi and King as being their respective movements’ most successful activists.[25] He further argues that nonviolence is generally advocated by privileged white people who expect “oppressed people, many of whom are people of color, to suffer patiently under an inconceivably greater violence, until such time as the Great White Father is swayed by the movement’s demands or the pacifists achieve that legendary ‘critical mass.'”[26]

The efficacy of nonviolence was also challenged by some anti-capitalist protesters advocating a “diversity of tactics” during street demonstrations across Europe and the US following the anti-World Trade Organization protests in Seattle, Washington in 1999. American feminist writer D. A. Clarke, in her essay “A Woman With A Sword,” suggests that for nonviolence to be effective, it must be “practiced by those who could easily resort to force if they chose.” This argument reasons that nonviolent tactics will be of little or no use to groups that are traditionally considered incapable of violence, since nonviolence will be in keeping with people’s expectations for them and thus go unnoticed. Such is the principle of dunamis (from the Greek: δύνάμις or, restrained power).

Niebuhr’s criticism of nonviolence, expressed most clearly in Moral Man and Immoral Society (1932) is based on his view of human nature as innately selfish, an updated version of the Christian doctrine of original sin. Advocates of nonviolence generally do not accept the doctrine of original sin (though Martin Luther King, Jr., did accept a modified version of Niebuhr’s teachings on the subject).[citation needed]

Property damage

One minor, but commonly debated issue is whether the destruction of or damage to non-living objects, as opposed to people is actual “violence”. In much nonviolence literature, including Sharp, various forms of sabotage and damage to property are included within the scope of nonviolent action, while other authors consider destruction or destructive acts of any kind as potentially or actually a form of violence in that it might generate fear or hardship upon the owner or person dependent on that object.

Other authors or activists argue that property destruction can be strategically ineffective if the act provides a pretext for further repression or reinforces state power. Lakey, for instance, argues that the burning of cars during the Paris uprising of 1968 only served to undermine the growing working and middle-class support for the uprising and undermined its political potential.[citation needed]

Sabotage of machinery used in war, either during its production or after, complicates the issue further. Is saving a life by destroying property that will later be used for violence a violent act, or is passively allowing weapons to be used later the violent act (i.e. non-violence that leads to violence)? At a less abstract level, if someone is being beaten with a stick, it is usually not considered an act of violence to take the stick away, but if the stick falls to the ground and you break it, is that still considered a violent action?

In all of these debates it is relevant to consider the question of whether the perpetrator or victim of violence determines what is “violent”. Also, relative power of parties and the type of “weapon” being applied is relevant to the issue. Palestinian children throwing rocks at Israeli tanks as an example cited. Force itself here becomes a relative measure of power and petty violence by the disenfranchised may be violence, but ultimately is not the same as overarching “power” to destroy.

Differing views

The term nonviolence is sometimes used to define different sets of limitations or features, as different actions are considered violent or not violent. In a Wikipedia article on the 2008 Tibetan unrest, a quotation from Dawa Tsering, an Additional Secretary in the Department of Information and International Relations of the Tibetan government-in-exile claims that actions of beating people and setting fire to a building with people holed up inside who end up being burnt to death are both scenarios of nonviolence; though, some Western definitions would clearly clash with their definition of nonviolence which appears to include everything but intentional causing of fatal harm. In an interview with Radio France International Tsering said[27]:

First of all, I must make it clear that the Tibetan (rioters) has been non-violent throughout (the incident). …the Tibetans rioters were beating Han Chinese, but only beating took place. After the beating the Han Chinese were free to flee. Therefore [there were] only beating, no life was harmed. Those who were killed were all results of accidents. …the Han Chinese all went into hiding upstairs. When the Tibetan [rioters] set fire to the buildings, the Han Chinese remained in hiding instead of escaping, the result is that these Han Chinese were all accidentally burnt to death. Those who set and spread the fire, on the other hand, had no idea whatsoever that there were Han Chinese hiding upstairs. Therefore not only were Han Chinese burnt to death, some Tibetans were burnt to death too. Therefore all these incidents were accidents, not murder.

Organizations

See also

A “Marcha do Sal” que 

Satyagraha é um têrmo sânscrito(सत्याग्रह) composto por duas palavras nesta línguaSatya, que pode ser traduzida como verdade; e agraha que significa firmeza, constância, [1] é uma filosofia desenvolvida por Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (também conhecido como “Mahatma” Gandhi) para o movimento de Resistência não-violenta na Índia

Gandhi empregou o satyagraha na campanha de independência da Índia e também durante sua permanência na Africa do Sul. A teoria do Satyagraha influenciou Martin Luther King, Jr. durante a campanha que ele liderou pelos direitos civis nos Estados Unidos da América.

Índice

 

Significado do termo

Este termo, um dos principais ensinamentos do indiano Mahatma Ghandi, designa o princípio da não-agressão, uma forma não-violenta deprotesto. Esta não deve ser confundida com uma adesão à passividade, é uma forma de ativismo que muitas vezes implica a desobediência civil.

Gandhi descreveu o termo como:

Tenho também a chamado de força do amor ou força da alma. Eu descobri o satyagraha pela primeira vez no inicio da minha busca pela verdade que não admitia o uso da violência contra um adversário, pois o mesmo deve ser desarmado dos seus erros com paciência e compaixão. Sendo o que parece ser verdade para um e um erro para o outro. E paciência significa auto-sofrimento. Assim, a doutrina passou a significar reivindicação de verdade, e não pela inflição de sofrimento sobre o adversário, mas sobre si mesmo. [2]

A resistência passiva

Quando Gandhi desenvolveu sua filosofia de não-violência, ele não encontrava uma palavra adequada para defini-la em inglês, então decidiu usar esta palavra sânscrita, satyagraha.

No contexto do movimento da Índia em busca da independência, o “satyagrahi” (“aquele que pratica a “satyagraha”) é a pessoa que, após ter procurado a verdade em espírito de paz e benevolência, e tendo compreendido tal verdade em termos de um mal ou um erro a ser corrigido, afirma a sua verdade em confronto aberto com o mal através da prática da não violência , já que a utilização da violência resultaria precisamente de uma percepção distorcida da verdade. Em seu ato de resistência bem intencionado, o “satyagrahi” sempre informa seu adversário sobre suas intenções e evita sistematicamente a prática de ocultar estratégias de combate que lhe possam ser vantajosas. Pensada nesses termos, a “satyagraha” é menos um ato de desafio com vistas à conquista do que uma tentativa de conversão que deveria, idealmente, ter como resultado nem a vitória e nem a derrota de cada uma das partes conflitantes, mas antes uma nova ordem harmônica.

Gandhi escreveu:

“A distinção entre a resistência passiva como é entendida e praticada no ocidente do satyagraha que eu desenvolvi como uma doutrina lógica e espiritual. É uma metáfora para a não-violência. Eu frequentemente usava “resistência passiva” e “satyagraha” como termos sinônimos: mas com o desenvolvimento da doutrina do satyagraha, a expressão “resistência passiva” deixa de ser sinônimo, pois a resistência passiva pode fazer uso da violência, como no caso da sufragistas e tem sido universalmente reconhecida como uma arma dos fracos. Além disso, resistência passiva não envolve necessariamente a adesão a verdade completa em todas as circunstâncias. Portanto, ela é diferente do satyagraha em três aspectos essenciais: Satyagraha é uma arma dos fortes, e não admite o uso da violência sob qualquer circunstância, e ela sempre insiste em defender a verdade. Acho que isto já fez a distinção perfeitamente clara. “[3]

Gandhi liderando a caminhada do sal , um notável examplo de Satyagraha

Princípios para Satyagrahis

Gandhi imaginou satyagraha como não apenas uma tática para ser usado em luta política, mas como um solvente universal de injustiça. Ele considera que é igualmente aplicável em grande escala da luta política e de conflitos interpessoais e que deve ser ensinado a todos. [4]

Ele fundou a Sabarmati Ashram para ensinar satyagraha. Ele pediu aos satyagrahis seguissem os seguintes princípios: [5]

  1. Não violência (Ahimsa)
  2. Verdade – isso inclui honestidade, mas ultrapassa ao dizer que vivem plenamente de acordo com a verdade e com na devoção a ela.
  3. Não-roubar
  4. Castidade (brahmacharya) – isto inclui castidade sexual, mas também ao desapego de outros desejos sensuais por devoção à verdade
  5. Não-posse (não é a mesma coisa que pobreza)
  6. Trabalho Corporal ou trabalhar pelo pão de cada dia
  7. Dieta
  8. Destemor
  9. Igualdade de respeitar todas as religiões
  10. Estratégia Econômica como o boicote (boicote aos produtos ingleses)
  11. Libertar-se do conceito de intocabilidade

Em outra ocasião, ele citou outras sete regras como “essencial para todos os Satyagrahi na Índia”: [6]

  1. Ter uma fé viva em Deus
  2. Acreditar na verdade e na não-violência e que ter fé na bondade intrínseca da natureza humana esperando que ela seja evocada pelo sofrimento de se manter no satyagraha
  3. Deve levar uma vida casta, e estar disposto a morrer ou perder todas as suas posses
  4. Deve vestir um khadi
  5. Deve abster-se do álcool e outros intoxicantes
  6. Deve proceder de acordo com todas as regras de disciplina conhecidas
  7. Deve obedecer a regras da prisão ao menos que sejam especialmente concebidas para quebrar o seu auto-respeito`

Regras para Campanhas usando o Satyagraha

Gandhi propôs uma série de regras para satyagrahis em uma campanha de resistência:

  1. Trabalhar sem ira
  2. Sofrer pela ira do adversário
  3. Nunca retaliar a agressões ou punições, mas não mostrar, ter medo de punição ou assalto, ou a uma ordem dada com fúria
  4. Apresentar voluntariamente à prisão ou ao confisco de seus próprios bens
  5. Se você é um administrador de imóveis, defender que a propriedade de forma (não-violenta) com a sua vida
  6. Não maldiçoar ou praguejar
  7. Não insultar o adversário
  8. Nem saudar, nem insultar a bandeira do seu oponente ou dos líderes do seu adversário.
  9. Se alguém tenta insultar ou agredir o seu adversário, defender o seu adversário (não-violência), com a sua vida
  10. Enquanto prisioneiro, se comportar com cortesia e obedecer os regulamentos da prisão(exceto aqueles que são contrários à auto-respeito)
  11. Como um prisioneiro, não peça tratamento especial ou mais favorável
  12. Como um prisioneiro, não seja rápido na tentativa de ganhar conveniências cuja privação não implicam em qualquer prejuízo para a sua auto-estima
  13. Alegremente obedeça as ordens dos líderes da ação de desobediência civil
  14. Não selecionar ou escolher quais as ordens que deve obedecer, se você achar a ação tenha algo de impróprio ou imoral, corte sua ligação com a ação totalmente.
  15. Não fazer a sua participação condicionada à companheiros que cuidem dos seus dependentes enquanto você estiver participando da campanha ou na prisão, não esperava que eles forneçam esse apoio
  16. Não se tornar sua causa um querelas de coisas banais
  17. Não tomar partido em disputas, mas só auxilie aquele partido que está comprovadamente certo; em caso de conflito inter-religioso, de sua vida para proteger (de forma não-violenta) às pessoas em perigo de ambos os lados
  18. Evitar ações que podem dar origem a conflitos banais
  19. Não tomar parte nas procissões que a firam a sensibilidades religiosas de qualquer comunidade

[editar]Satyagraha, em grande escala conflito

((main | Bardoli Satyagraha | Champaran e Kheda Satyagraha | Dharasana Satyagraha | Bandeira Satyagraha | Guruvayur Satyagraha | Não cooperação circulação | Sair Índia Movimento | Salt Satyagraha | Vaikom Satyagraha))

Ao utilizar satyagraha em conflito políticos em grande escala envolvendo a desobediência civil, Gandhi acreditava que a satyagrahis deve receber formação para assegurar a disciplina. Ele escreveu que “só quando uma pessoas tenham demonstrado a sua lealdade ativa obedecendo a legislação do Estado que eles adquirem o direito de desobediência civil”.

Por isso, faz parte da disciplina dos satyagrahis:

  1. Apreciar as demais leis do Estado, e cumpri-las voluntariamente.
  2. Tolerar essas leis, mesmo quando são incômodas.
  3. Estar dispostos a sofrer a dor da, perda de propriedade, e suportar o sofrimento que pode ser infligido à família e amigos. [7]

Essa obediência tem não pode ser apenas crítica, mas extraordinária:

… um homem honesto e respeitável não começará de repente roubar, haja ou não uma lei à favor ou contra o roubo, mas este mesmo homem não sentirá remorso em não observar a lei sobre acender os faróis da sua bicicletas após escurecer. … Mas ele observará qualquer lei obrigatória, ainda que apenas para escapar do transtorno de enfrentar um processo por violação da lei. Tal submissão não é, contudo, o desejo espontâneo de obediência que se requer de um Satyagrahi. [8]

Gandhi conduziu em 1930 foi uma manifestação dedesobediência civil conduzida de acordo com os princípios da Satyagraha.

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No momento em que escrevo há bastante nervosismo na Esplanada, coração da República e da cidade onde moro, com a prisão do banqueiro Daniel Dantas. Motivos de sobra para tanto nervosismo o jornalista Bob Fernandes aponta em artigo publicado na revista eletrônica Terra Magazine [1]. Numa dessas irônicas coincidências, no aniversário da Revolução Constitucionalista de 1932, logo após o presidente do Supremo Tribunal Federal, responsável por guardar e interpretar a Constituição, ter exibido algum do seu, perante câmeras de telejornais.

 

Mas é uma outra exibição, passada sem interesse da mídia no dia seguinte, que será mote destas reflexões: a de um senador que vem cumprindo um papel tipo “venha-a-nós”, para acalmar os que se indignaram e se alarmaram com dispositivos abusivos na proposta de lei contra “crimes informáticos” que estava a ponto de ser votada pelo plenário do Senado. Ou para acalmar os que desconfiaram do modo peculiar de debate e tramitação dessa proposta, das quais ele se fez coadjuvante [2]. O senador perdeu a calma ao responder a uma silenciosa manifestação desta indignação e alarme, enrolando-se na bandeira do combate à pedofilia, durante a abertura do Fórum de Inclusão Digital que ocorria Brasília [3]. Uma exibição dificilmente compatível com este papel.

No que se refere ao produto em questão, encomendado para ser entregue ao ordenamento jurídico pátrio num prazo ou que relaxa ou se esgota com todo esse nervosismo, alguns sinais teriam aberto espaço para este seu papel e para alguma acomodação. Pero no mucho. O relator firmou-se em manter um certo dispositivo, um que pode induzir provedores de internet a se tornarem ciberagentes policiais (proposta de inciso III ao art. 22). Enquanto escrevo este artigo a matéria atropelou a pauta, foi aprovada no plenário do Senado e volta à Câmara, para uma tramitação que promete, digamos, continuar curiosa. A começar por se saber quem, afinal, no Senado conhecia a versão na qual votou. Sobre isto não podemos saber muito. Mas podemos, pelo menos, perquirir o por quê desse dispositivo imexível, nessa tramitação trepidante.

Um provedor, conforme insiste o relator, terá que saber quais crimes são passíveis de acionamento penal público incondicionado, e quais não o são, para saber quando repassar, ou não, denúncia da qual tomar conhecimento, se não quiser se tornar ele mesmo enquadradável como criminoso. Sabe alguém dizer quais tipos de crime são assim passíveis, e quais não o são? (eu ainda não encontrei quem pudesse me responder). Ou seja, na prática, acabará valendo o efeito: denuncia-se qualquer suspeita. O que transformará provedores em capatazes do escravagismo digital proprietário prenunciado por um outro dispositivo, proposto para o art. 285 do Código Penal [4]. Provedores de Internet terão que agir como cibercapatazes, e, a partir da suas automatizadas denúncias, o Estado poderá, legalmente, perseguir o que lhe convier. Inclusive crimes tipificados, na proposta, por norma penal em branco a ser preenchida por interesses privados atuando na esfera virtual.

No episódio XII dos “Sapos Piramidais“, apresentado no 9º FISL, o destaque foi para o “forum shifting“: quando interesses monopolistas e/ou totalitaristas promovem uma iniciativa de radicalização normativa em um fórum internacional (OMC, OMPI, UE, ALCA, etc.), e tal iniciativa se vê neutralizada, atrasada ou atolada por mobilização no terceiro setor, na periferia do capitalismo ou por alianças entre tais (ex.: TRIPS+ na OMC, SCCR na OMPI, patentes de software na UE, subsídios na ALCA), os interessados na radicalização abandonam o Fórum e se reagrupam, fundando ou “sequestrando” outro fórum. A novidade passa a ser, como no fórum demandado pela RIAA — o ACTA [11] –, que as negociações podem recomeçar secretamente, e serem assim levadas até onde possível [5]. 

Autoridades do comércio de alguns países centrais que participam do ACTA querem, pelo pouco que se sabe do que já vazou, reforçar uma das metas buscadas pelos negociadores da convenção de Budapeste, qual seja, a de transformar provedores em cibercapatazes [6]. Trata-se de uma medida capaz de diluir o custo da eficácia normativa na esfera virtual, e que desconsidera efeitos colaterais. Tal como no anterior ciclo escravagista, na esfera laboral. Um capataz é um ente privado capaz de fazer, contra quem dele depende, justiça com suas próprias mãos salvo quando esta desfavoreça um interesse maior, que para isso o coage e/ou o protege. Pela proposta, provedor que não repassar denúncia de crime passível de acionamento penal público incondicionado — o que quer que venha a ser isso — seria (ou será) também criminoso.

Na conveção de Budapeste, os interesses radicalizantes ali representados foram de entidades policiais dos países centrais do capitalismo, para os quais a grande ameaça é à riqueza representada por bens intangíveis. O controle sobre a apropriação destes bens vem se erodindo, com a crescente perda de eficácia dos mecanismos de manutenção de escassez artificial na esfera virtual necessários a tal apropriação. A erosão desta escassez artifical e virtual os assusta, enquanto o aumento de uma escassez real, ocorrendo na esfera material com energia e com alimentos, não lhes interessa. Pelo menos não diretamente.

A escassez virtual segue erodindo, e a escassez material segue crescendo, sem que os interesses representados por essas entidades policiais tenham poder de persuasão normativa suficiente para alterar o quadro geral em ritmo hábil. Eles têm menos poder do que os grandes interesses comerciais pós-industriais, que por sua vez deles precisam para dar eficácia a suas normas de “livre-comércio”. Os dois tipos de interesse, então, logicamente confluem. Defende-se lá, no ACTA, o que se pede aqui, à guisa da convenção de Budapeste. Dentre as confluências importantes, a “capatazização” dos provedores. Buscada agora com maior poder de persuasão, passível de sanções comerciais (bancadas por projeção militar) contra recalcitrantes. Via novas normas a serem ditadas, e logo [9], pelo ACTA. Há nisso duas lições, e uma dúvida.

A primeira lição dá sentido a um comentário que o senador relator da matéria proferiu no seminário da Câmara onde se discutiu sua proposta de substitutivo em 2006 [10]: que não adianta resistir à sua proposta, pois as mudanças normativas que ela propõe uma hora virão, de uma forma ou de outra. A segunda lição é sobre como podem convergir os interesses que movem sua proposta e aqueles comuns entre os bilderbergers, para os quais um governo global e totalitário, consentido ou oculto, será útil e/ou inevitável. São lições que também deixam muitas pessoas nervosas, algumas por razões opostas ao da visão de um banqueiro em algemas. Razões que podem levá-los a desqualificar o contéudo dessas lições como bravata, paranóia, conspiracionismo; e o conteúdo da proposta, como inevitável, inapelável, infugível.

Se, contudo, tais lições forem significativas, então bandeiras de camuflagem serão úteis e importantes nesse estágio do processo de radicalização normativa globalizada. Bandeiras tais como “guerra ao terrorismo” ou “combate à pedofilia”, esta a preferida pelo marketing que promove o dito substitutivo. Como indica a disputa política em torno dela, na CPI hora em curso sobre o tema e em projetos de lei concorrentes, à luz do conteúdo de seus dispositivos a respeito [8]. Resta a dúvida: sobre onde se inovaria mais, em se tratando de legislar à sorrelfa. Sobre onde tudo isso vai dar, não deve restar dúvida: está às claras no final do mais antigo e circulado dos livros. 

Prof. Pedro Antônio Dourado de Rezende *
Departamento de Ciência da Computação 
Universidade de Brasília
9 a 10 de julho de 2008

 

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A tornado in central Oklahoma. Weather control researchers aspire to eliminate or control dangerous types of weather such as this.

Weather control is the act of manipulating or altering certain aspects of the environment to produce desirable changes in weather.

Contents

 

History of weather control

Witches concoct a brew to summon a hailstorm.

Some American Indians had rituals which they believed could induce rain. The Finnish people, on the other hand, were believed by others to be able to control weather. As a result, Vikings refused to take Finns on their oceangoing raids. Remnants of this superstition lasted into the twentieth century, with some ship crews being reluctant to accept Finnish sailors. The early modern era saw people observe that during battles the firing of cannons and other firearms often initiated precipitation. Magical and religiouspractices to control the weather are attested in a variety of cultures. In Greek mythologyIphigenia was sacrificed as a human sacrifice to appease the wrath of the goddessArtemis, who had caused the Achaean fleet to be becalmed at Aulis at the beginning of the Trojan War. In Homer‘s OdysseyAeolus, keeper of the winds, bestowedOdysseus and his crew with a gift of the four winds in a bag. However, the sailors open the bag while Odysseus slept, looking for booty, and as a result are blown off course by the resulting gale.[1] In ancient Rome, the lapis manalis was a sacred stone kept outside the walls of Rome in a temple of Mars. When Rome suffered from drought, the stone was dragged into the city.[2] The Berwick witches of Scotland were found guilty of using black magic to summon storms to murder King James VI of Scotland by seeking to sink the ship upon which he travelled.[3] Scandinavian witches allegedly claimed to sell the wind in bags or magically confined into wooden staves; they sold the bags to seamen who could release them when becalmed.[4] In various towns of Navarreprayers petitioned Saint Peter to grant rain in time of drought. If the rain was not forthcoming, the statue of St Peter was removed from the church and tossed into a river.[5] In the Middle AgesAbbas Ibn Firnas invented an artificial weather simulation room in which spectators saw and were astonished by starsclouds, artificial thunder, and lightning which were produced by mechanisms hidden in his basement laboratory.[6]

Perhaps the first example of practical weather control is the lightning rod. In the 1950s, computer scientist John von Neumann, an early theorizer on weather control, surmised that if Earth were to enter another Ice Age, a preventative solution would be to dump dirt (or spray soot from cropdusting planes) on the surface of the planet’s glaciers. He noted that this would significantly change their reflectivity (albedo), and thus increase the solar energy retained by the planet. Such a strategy would require repeated applications, as storms would cover some portion of the soot with new snow until their frequency and range abated. The theoretical efficacy of von Neumann’s proposal remains to be examined. Wilhelm Reichperformed cloudbusting experiments in the 1950s to 1960s, the results of which are controversial and not widely accepted by mainstream science. Dr Walter Russell wrote of weather control in Atomic Suicide 1956. Jack Toyer in the 1970s built a rainmaker on Palmers Island near Grafton using a solar mirror, electromagnetic static charge, and infra red frequencies of light to induce weather in regional areas within Australia. His work was continued by his successor, Peter Stevens.

Cloud seeding for rain

Cloud seeding is a common technique intended to trigger rain, but evidence on its effectiveness is mixed. The most daunting problem in the study of weather modification is the lack of scientific knowledge on the natural atmospheric processes. Because these natural processes are beyond man’s current comprehension, there is simply no controllable medium to conduct relative studies known as of yet. And because of the public’s ever growing need for more water, there has also been a rapid development of corporations that perform unregulated operational cloud seeding. Critics generally contend that claimed successes occur in conditions which were going to rain anyway. It is used in several different countries, including the United States, the People’s Republic of China, and Russia. In the People’s Republic of China there is a perceived dependency upon it in dry regions, which believe they are increasing annual rainfall by firing silver iodide rockets into the sky where rain is desired. In the United States, dry ice or silver iodide may be injected into a cloud by aircraft, or from the ground, in an attempt to increase rainfall; some companies are dedicated to this form of weather modification.

Storm prevention

Project Stormfury was an attempt to weaken tropical cyclones by flying aircraft into storms and seeding the eyewall with silver iodide. The project was run by the United States Government from 1962 to 1983. A similar project using soot was run in 1958, with inconclusive results.[7] Various methods have been proposed to reduce the harmful effects of hurricanes. Moshe Alamaro of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology[8] proposed using barges with upward-pointing jet engines to trigger smaller storms to disrupt the progress of an incoming hurricane; critics doubt the jets would be powerful enough to make any noticeable difference.[7]

Alexandre Chorin of the University of California at Berkeley proposed dropping large amounts of environmentally friendly oils on the sea surface to prevent droplet formation.[9] Experiments by Kerry Emanuel[10] of MIT in 2002 suggested that hurricane-force winds would disrupt the oil slick, making it ineffective.[11] Other scientists disputed the factual basis of the theoretical mechanism assumed by this approach.[12] The Florida company Dyn-O-Mat proposes the use of a product it has developed, called Dyn-O-Gel, to reduce the strength of hurricanes. The substance is a polymer in powder form which reportedly has the ability to absorb 1,500 times its own weight in water. The theory is that the polymer is dropped into clouds to remove their moisture and force the storm to use more energy to move the heavier water drops, thus helping to dissipate the storm. When the gel reaches the ocean surface, it is reportedly dissolved. The company has tested the substance on a thunderstorm, but there has not been any scientific consensus established as to its effectiveness.[13] Hail cannons are used by some farmers in an attempt to ward off hail, but there is no reliable scientific evidence to confirm or deny their effectiveness. Another new anti-hurricane technology [1] is a method for the reduction of tropical cyclones’ destructive force – pumping sea water into and diffusing it in the wind at the bottom of such tropical cyclone in its eyewall.

2008 Olympic games

In the largest rain dispersal operation on record in China, and the first time that such technology was used in conjunction with the Olympics, the Beijing Municipal Meteorological Bureau fired a total of 1,104rain dispersal rockets within an eight-hour period prior to and during the opening ceremonies of the Games of the XXIX Olympiad on August 8, 2008. The rockets were launched from twenty-one sites and may have prevented the ceremonies from receiving rainfall in the range of 25 to 100 millimeters of rain.

With a rainy weather forecast for the Olympic night, and 90% humidity, the attempt “successfully intercepted a stretch of rain belt from moving towards the stadium…” said Guo Hu, head of the Beijing Municipal Meteorological Bureau. “…”Under such a weather condition, a small bubble in the rain cloud would have triggered rainfall, let alone a lightning…” said Guo, according to Xinhua News’ 2008 Olympics website.In the subsequent days that followed torrential rain nearly washed the games out.

Ionospheric experiments

The High-frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) is a congressionally initiated program jointly managed by the U.S. Air Force and U.S. Navy. The HAARP complex is situated within a 23-acre lot in a relatively isolated region near the town of Gakona. When the final phase of the project is completed in 1997, the military will have erected 180 towers, 72 feet in height, forming a “high-power, high frequency phased array radio transmitter” capable of beaming in the 2.5-10 megahertz frequency range, at more than 3 gigawatts of power (3 billion watts). http://www.haarp.alaska.edu/haarp/prpeis.html

HIPAS has several diverse experimental facilities: a 1-megawatt rf transmitter to produce ELF/VLF (Extremely Low Frequency and Very Low Frequency) electromagnetic (EM) generation by the absorption ofradio frequency (rf) power in the arctic ionosphere including ion cyclotron excitation; a 100 kW rf plasma torch used in research on the destruction of hazardous waste; a 2.7 m liquid mirror telescope used with one of several lasers for ionospheric stimulation and measurement; an Incoherent Scatter Radar (a new project using 88 ft. diameter antenna at NOAA Gilmore Creek site 34 km SW of HIPAS as the receiving antenna with the transmitter at HIPAS). HIPAS is in the process of adding a very high power (terawatt) laser (recently obtained from LLNL) to perform laser breakdown experiments in the ionosphere. Two Diesel electric generators (1500 HP 4160 V, 3-phase, 1.2 MVA each) are used to power the experiments. There are a number of computers (PC’s ) on site, and a high-speed data line to UAF is available. While these experiments are useful in measuring the properties of the ionosphere, they produce insufficient amounts of energy to modify it in any significant way. however hotspots can be created within the ionospehere where this radiation is focused, temperatures can be elevated by up to 1600`k causing expansion of the ionosphere and subsequent changes in pressure and temperature, which in turn lead to changes in the global meteorology.

Weather control and law

1977 Environmental Modification Convention

Weather control, as well as “weather tampering”, for hostile or military purposes is expressly forbidden dating from at least December 10, 1976, when the “United Nations General Assembly Resolution 31/72, TIAS 9614 Convention[14] on the Prohibition of Military or Any Other Hostile Use of Environmental Modification Techniques” was adopted. The Convention was: Signed in Geneva May 18, 1977; Entered into force October 5, 1978; Ratification by U.S. President December 13, 1979; U.S. ratification deposited at New York January 17, 1980.[15]

Space Preservation Act Title: To preserve the cooperative, peaceful uses of space for the benefit of all humankind by permanently prohibiting the basing of weapons in space by the United States, and to require the President to take action to adopt and implement a world treaty banning space-based weapons. Sponsor: Rep Kucinich, Dennis J. http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/z?c107:H.R.2977.IH: The bill originally mentioned chemtrails and H.A.A.R.P.,but was modified and resubmitted as H.R.3616 and H.R.2440. H.R. 2977 Space Preservation Act of 2001 introduced October 2, 2001, 107th Congress, 1st Session. The bill was referred to committee and no further action ensued. H.R. 3616 Space Preservation Act of 2002 introduced January 23, 2002, 107th Congress, 2d Session. The bill was referred to committee and no further action ensued. H.R. 2420 Space Preservation Act of 2005 introduced May 18, 2005, 109th Congress, 1st Session, with 34 co-sponsors (see accompanying list). The bill was referred to committee and no further action ensued. http://www.sourcewatch.org/index.php?title=Space_Preservation_Act

2005 U.S. Senate Bill 517 and U.S. House Bill 2995

U.S. Senate Bill 517[16] and U.S. House Bill 2995[17] were two laws proposed in 2005 that would have allowed experimental weather modification by artificial methods, attempted to establish a Weather Modification Operations and Research Board, and implemented a national weather modification policy. Neither ever became law.

U.S. Senate Bill 1807 & U.S. House Bill 3445 Senate Bill 1807 and House Bill 3445, identical bills introduced July 17, 2007, propose to establish a Weather Mitigation Advisory and Research Board to federally fund weather modification research http://tlp.law.pitt.edu/SP_DiLorenzo_Weather%20Modification.htm sponsored by Kay Bailey Hutcheson and Mark Udall. http://www.govtrack.us/congress/bill.xpd?bill=s110-1807

Future aspirations

Climatologist Ross Hoffman has simulated hurricane control based on selective heating and cooling (or prevention of evaporation).[18] Futurist John Smart has discussed the potential for weather control via space-based solar power networks. One proposal involves the gentle heating via microwave of portions of large hurricanes. Such chaotic systems may be susceptible to “side steering” with a few degrees of increased temperature/pressure at critical points. A sufficient network might keep the largest and most potentially damaging hurricanes from landfall, at the request of host nations. Blizzards, monsoons, and other extreme weather are also potential candidates for space-based amelioration.[citations needed] If large-scale weather control were to become feasible, potential implications may include:

  • Unintended side effects, especially given the chaotic nature of weather development
  • Damage to existing ecosystems
  • Health risks to humans
  • Equipment malfunction or accidents
  • Non-democratic control or use as a weapon

For the 2008 Olympics, China had 30 airplanes, 4,000 rocket launchers, and 7,000 anti-aircraft guns to stop rain. Each system would shoot various chemicals into any threatening clouds to shrink rain drops before they reach the stadium.[19]

Weather control in popular culture

In popular culture, weather control technology can be encountered in the realms of public speculation, science fiction, and fantasy. The concept of weather control is often portrayed as a part of terraforming.

Film and television

Star Trek

  • In the Star Trek universe, most advanced planets and colonies utilize weather control, often referred to as weather modification grids or weather modification nets. A small, but long-established TNG-era (ca2369) colony was a weather control facility for approximately a hundred years. Most advanced civilizations apparently employ weather control standard equipment.
  • Weather control technology in 2270s required special facilities, modern TNG– and DS9-era technology consists of multiple mid-size devices positioned strategically, networked and controlled from more-or-less arbitrary places.
  • For example, the planet Risa has its climate controlled to be a tropical paradise. Perhaps one of the few modern exceptions of planets apparently without weather control technology is Ferenginar with continuous rain.

Other films or shows

  • In the Sci Fi Channel original series, Stargate SG1, Episode 214, “Touchstone“, aired on October 30, 1998, the Stargate SG1 team discovers a weather control device on an alien planet, which is subsequently stolen and brought to earth, where experimenting with it wreaked havoc with the local weather. The device was later recaptured and returned to its original planet which had suffered phenomenal storms since it had been stolen.
  • In the Disney Channel Original MovieThe Ultimate Christmas Present, two girls find a weather machine and make it snow in Los Angeles.
  • In the live action Justice League of America film, the villain is a terrorist who has a weather control device.
  • In Aliens, a colony sent to LV-426 by the Company utilized a fusion-powered terraforming atmosphere processor. In the first film, the planet’s climate was not yet suitable for human life.
  • In The Arrival, a race of aliens is found to be terraforming the Earth using hidden factories producing huge volumes of highly potent, engineered “super-greenhouse gases”.
  • In the 1987 Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles cartoon series, the episode “Hot Rodding Teenagers from Dimension X” includes Stone Warriors using a “weather satellite“, with one difference: while other weather satellite gives weather prognosis, this one “makes weather”. The “weather satellite” creates a storm to level New York City, but the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles destroy it. The episode “Take Me to Your Leader” of the same series include Krang and the Shredder using a machine to reduce the Sun, creating cold weather on the Earth.
  • Storm (played by Halle Berry in the 2000 film and subsequent sequels), a member of the X-Men, can control the weather with her mind.
  • In Superman IIIGus Gorman (Richard Pryor) changes the weather by hacking into a weather satellite.
  • In a Family Guy episode, Stewie builds a machine that can control the weather using only a satellite dish and a See ‘n Say.
  • In the film The Avengers Sir August de Wynter (Sean Connery) creates a satellite capable of controlling the weather.
  • Our Man Flint is a 1966 sci-fi action film which stars James Coburn as Derek Flint where a trio of mad scientists attempt to blackmail the world with a weather-control machine.
  • Kaijûtô no kessen: Gojira no musuko is a 1967 film from Japan. Scientists, on a tropical island, conduct weather control experiments then encounter gigantic praying mantises and a giant spider that attack the son of Godzilla. Godzilla arrives and saves his offspring.
  • The cartoon miniseries G.I. Joe: The Revenge of Cobra, showed the terrorist group Cobra in possession of a device called the Weather Dominator.
  • American Daytime soap opera General Hospital featured a storyline where mad genius Mikkos Cassadine used a substance called Carbonic Snow to create a blizzard in the show’s locale Port Charles in the middle of what had been a long hot summer in order to blackmail world leaders into accepting his new world order. Luke Spencer managed to thwart the plan.
  • In WALL-E, the Megacorporation known as Buy N Large, had established a Global Weather Control System, the system was made of satellites that would change and control the weather in the areas that they were in. The system worked so well that soon Buy N Large even launched a program in which citizens can book certain weather in the areas where they live. Such as, scheduling a Thunderstorm during a parade so that it will literally “rain on their parade.”
  • In the sci-fi drama series Heroes, Angela Petrelli’s long-lost sister, Alice Shaw, was revealed to be able to control weather.

Computer games

  • In Master Of Orion, it is possible to build a weather control building to change the planet’s environment.
  • In Command & Conquer: Red Alert 2 and Command & Conquer: Yuri’s Revenge Expansion Pack, the Allies can build the weather control device superweapon, and direct thunderstorms to strike a selected location of the map every 10 minutes.
  • In Tribunal, an expansion pack to The Elder Scrolls III: Morrowind, the player finds a machine under the city of Almalexia that can change the weather of the city at the will of its user.
  • In Phantasy Star II, a weather, irrigation and dam control system known as Climatrol has been constructed by Mother Brain to make the barren planet Motavia habitable for Palman occupation.
  • In the game Spore by Will Wright, players are able to use a spacecraft to modify planetary atmospheres – creating volcanoes to generate carbon dioxide, seeding plant life to create breathable air, or even using a “Genesis device” to make a planet habitable in one go. There is no actual controlling of weather, however.[20]
  • In “Earth 2150“, the Lunar Corporation are capable of building a weather control station for tactical weather control. The structure can be charged to cause storms, fog, and/or wind at targeted areas on the map.
  • In Fable 2 Knothole island Expansion, the player can control weather by obtaining weather crystals and using them in a weather chamber, 3 crystals represent sun,rain and snow.
  • in The Sims 2 seasons Expansion, players can use a season changing device to make a certain season permanent or prolong a desired season for a number of in-game days.

Prose

  • Ben Bova‘s The Weathermakers is the story of a government agency that controls the weather.
  • Sidney Sheldon‘s Are You Afraid of the Dark is the story of a think tank that builds technology powerful enough to create hurricanes, tornadoes, and tsunamis.
  • In Michael Crichton‘s State of Fear, ecoterrorists plan to create a tsunami, calve an iceberg, and induce flash flooding and hurricanes.
  • In Normand Lester’s science thriller Verglas, the 1998 icestorm that struck the Montréal area is an experiment by the Pentagon in the development of a climatic weapon that went wrong. The book speculate that ULF waves generated by a transmitter at Siple Station, a US base in Antarctica, caused the icestorm by affecting the ionosphere over Québec.
  • In Lois Lowry‘s The Giver, the government controls the weather and keeps it from snowing, and confine rain to the farmland.
  • In the book series Weather Warden by Rachel Caine, the Wardens are an association of people who have the ability to control the elements – earth, fire and weather. They manipulate these elements to stop natural disasters from devastating mankind. The main character herself is a Weather Warden, so weather manipulation plays a large role throughout the series.
  • In Roger Zelazny‘s The Chronicles of Amber an openly known quality of the Jewel of Judgment is the ability to control the local weather.
  • In Frank Herbert‘s Dune series, weather control is widespread, and is achieved with specialized satellites in orbit around a planet.

Music

Other fictional weather controllers

  • DC Comics villain Weather Wizard could control the weather with a special kind of technology in the shape of a wand.
  • Marvel Comics heroes Thor and Storm could control weather; the former because he is the Norse god of thunder, the latter because she is a mutant whose powers specifically center around weather control.
  • Digimon character Wizardmon could manipulate thunderstorms.
  • When the Muppet Count von Count of Sesame Street laughs, it often invokes thunder.
  • In some of the Asterix comics, when the village bard Cacofonix sings, it starts to rain.
  • In the 2000 AD world of Judge Dredd the weather in Mega City One is controlled by a weather control station positioned above the populous and is used to spread a chemical which causes Block War by the city of East Meg One
  • In the Nintendo Gameboy Advance Video Game Pokemon Sapphire, The Pokemon “Kyogre” controlled the rain and the tides in Hoenn.
  • In the BIONICLE Saga, weather control is one of the many powers the Makuta species have.

Conspiracy theories

Conspiracy theorists have suggested that certain governments use or seek to use weather control as a weapon (eg via HAARP and/or chemtrails), but such allegations have not been proven. At a counterterrorism conference in 1997, United States Secretary of Defense William Cohen referred to the writings of futurist Alvin Toffler, specifically regarding concerns about “eco-terrorism” and intentionally caused natural disasters.[21]

See also

Maximin in philosophy

In philosophy, the term “maximin” is often used in the context of John Rawls‘s A Theory of Justice, where he refers to it (Rawls (1971, p. 152)) in the context of The Difference Principle. Rawls defined this principle as the rule which states that social and economic inequalities should be arranged so that “they are to be of the greatest benefit to the least-advantaged members of society”. In other words, an unequal distribution can be just when it maximizes the benefit to those who have the most minuscule allocation of welfare conferring resources (which he refers to as “primary goods”).[4][5]

Veja o artigo da wikipedia sobre Minimax, em inglês, na íntegra.

Veja o artigo da wikipedia sobre, em português, na íntegra.

[Foto: ministro Marcos Vinicius Pinta Gama]

O ministro Marcos Vinicius Pinta Gama, assessor especial da Secretaria Geral do Ministério das Relações Exteriores (MRE), disse que temas polêmicos, como orientação sexual, a questão palestina, difamação de religiões e tráfico transatlântico de escravos ficarão de fora da agenda da Conferência de Genebra, que revisará a Conferência de Durban contra o Racismo, a Xenofobia e a Intolerância, realizada em 2001. O ministro participou de reunião da Comissão de Direitos Humanos e Legislação Participativa (CDH), nesta quarta-feira (1º), representando o ministro das relações exteriores, Celso Amorim.

Pinto Gama salientou que farão parte da agenda da Conferência temas como a discriminação contra afrodescendentes, indígenas e mulheres, a incompatibilidade entre racismo e democracia e a adoção de ações afirmativas.

– A Conferência não servirá de revisão dos pontos acordados em Durban. Não haverá revisão do racismo – esclareceu o ministro, a respeito do encontro de Genebra, que acontece entre os dias 20 e 24 de abril. Ele assinalou que o Itamaraty pretende levar à Conferência de Genebra uma delegação capaz de articular posições e obter “consensos importantes”.

Marcos Vinicius destacou o papel desempenhado pelo Brasil em Durban ao atuar como “ponte” na busca do entendimento entre posições extremadas de grupos regionais. Segundo ele, a conferência de Durban, concretizada dois dias depois dos atentados de 11 de setembro, foi marcada “paradoxalmente” pela intolerância,

O ministro do MRE informou ainda não haver definição sobre a presidência da Conferência em Genebra. Disse que o Brasil foi um dos poucos países a realizar conferência regional para debater Durban, o que ocorreu em junho de 2008 com a Conferência Regional para América Latina e Caribe – Preparatória para a Conferência de Revisão de Durban.

Também participou da audiência o ministro Edson Santos, da Secretaria Especial de Políticas de Promoção da Igualdade Racial, que assinalou a importância da presença de países europeus e dos Estados Unidos para garantir o sucesso da Conferência.

Edson Santos avaliou que Genebra será diferente de Durban quanto à participação da sociedade civil brasileira e à composição da delegação brasileira, que em Durban foi de 168 delegados. Segundo informou Marcos Vinicius Pinta Gama, 600 brasileiros foram à África do Sul manifestar-se contrários ao racismo e à xenofobia.

– Estamos juntos com o Ministério das Relações Exteriores discutindo formas de abrigar maior número de representantes da sociedade civil para compor a delegação. Em termos numéricos, será bem distante do que foi na África do Sul – avaliou.

Edson Santos reiterou a importância do Brasil no papel de mediador e o empenho brasileiro na preparação da Conferência, ao trazer representantes de países latino-americanos e caribenhos a Brasília em 2008.

– O Brasil tem importância fundamental na costura, na mediação, nas pontes fundamentais para Durban chegar ao entendimento na promoção da igualdade racial. A sociedade civil papel fundamental em torno de um consenso na agenda de Durban – propôs o ministro.

A senadora Fátima Cleide (PT-RO), autora do requerimento para realização da audiência, lamentou a ausência dos representantes da sociedade civil no debate e avaliou como retrocesso o Brasil não defender, em Genebra, as políticas públicas adotadas no país contra a intolerância.

O presidente da comissão, senador Cristovam Buarque (PDT-DF), elogiou o governo brasileiro pela “firme disposição” em garantir respeito aos direitos humanos dos diversos grupos que costumam ser discriminados no Brasil e no mundo.

Ao final do encontro, a senadora Fátima Cleide sugeriu que, após a Conferência de Genebra, seja realizada nova audiência pública para que os representantes do governo apresentem os resultados obtidos em seu documento final.

Cristina Vidigal / Agência Senado
Agência Senado

Encontro espera mais de 3,7 mil participantes; Alta Comissária para Direitos Humanos disse que conclusões da reunião vão influenciar os esforços globais para combater o flagelo.

Mais de 3 mil pessoas participam 

Mais de 3 mil pessoas participam

 


Mônica Villela Grayley, da Rádio ONU em Nova Iorque*.

Começa nesta seguda-feira, em Genebra, na Suíça, a Conferência de Revisão de Durban sobre Racismo, Xenofobia e outras formas de Intolerância.

O encontro espera receber mais de 3,7 mil participantes e vários chefes de Estado e governo incluindo o presidente do Irão, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad.

Xenofobia

Falando numa conferência de imprensa na sexta-feira, a Alta Comissária para Direitos Humanos, Navi Pillay, pediu a todos os países para trabalharem no sentido de garantirem o êxito do evento. Ela disse que as conclusões do encontro irão influenciar os esforços para combater o racismo no mundo.

A reunião irá analisar a implementação da Declaração e Plano de Ação de combate ao racismo e xenofobia aprovado na primeira Conferência de Durban, realizada em 2001 na África do Sul.

O Secretário-Geral da ONU, Ban Ki-moon, deve discursar na abertura do evento.

Um dos destaques do encontro é a proposta de desagregar dados por raça e etnia nos censos nacionais.

Indígenas

A coordenadora do Fundo de Desenvolvimento da ONU para a Mulher, Unifem, no Brasil, Maria Inês Barbosa, que também participa no evento, disse à Rádio ONU que políticas públicas inclusivas não só ajudam a combater o racismo como também gerar mais inclusão para indígenas e negros na sociedade.

“Os indicadores nos permitem medir as desigualdades imputadas pelo racismo; portanto para os Estados poderem cumprir com medidas de reparação, discriminação e afirmação positiva, a melhor forma de fazê-lo é medir. Por isso, é importante que os censos incluam as dimensões de raça, cor e etnia”, disse.

A conferència decorrerá de de 20 a 24 de Abril no Palácio das Nações, a sede da ONU, em Genebra.

*Apresentação: Carlos Araújo, Rádio ONU, Nova Iorque.

 

As comissões de Direitos Humanos e Minorias; e de Relações Exteriores e de Defesa Nacional; e a Frente Parlamentar pela Igualdade Racial pedirão até a próxima semana, ao presidente Michel Temer, a formação de um grupo de deputados para representar o Parlamento na Conferência Mundial da ONU contra o Racismo – Durban 2. A conferência será realizada em Genebra (Suíça), de 20 a 24 de abril, e terá o objetivo de revisar os debates da conferência realizada na cidade de Durban (África do Sul), em 2001.

A informação foi dada pelo presidente da Comissão de Direitos Humanos, deputado Luiz Couto (PT-PB), em audiência pública realizada nesta quinta-feira para discutir o assunto. A reunião foi promovida pelos dois colegiados e a .

O ministro da Secretaria Especial de Promoção da Igualdade Racial, Edson Santos, afirmou que a presença parlamentar é fundamental no encontro. Até porque o Congresso discute temas como o Estatuto da Igualdade Racial e o projeto de lei de cotas nas universidades, já aprovado pela Câmara e em análise no Senado. “Esses temas exigem a co-responsabilidade do Parlamento brasileiro.” 

Agenda
Edson Santos espera um ambiente propício às discussões de construção de uma agenda contra o racismo, a xenofobia e a discriminação, sem retrocessos, uma vez que o tema não é consensual. Há divergências entre países, por exemplo, no que diz respeito à orientação sexual e ao conflito no Oriente Médio. “Espero que a gente tenha ambiente para o debate e, o que será um ponto positivo na agenda de revisão, a construção de indicadores dessa área”, disse.

A relatora da Conferência Mundial contra o Racismo (Durban 2001) e representante da Coordenadoria da Mulher e da Igualdade Racial, Edna Roland, também manifestou sua preocupação com a criação de um índice de desigualdade racial ou de igualdade de oportunidades, que deveria ter a mesma relevância que um índice de desenvolvimento humano. Ela disse não acreditar, no entanto, que um indicador como esse seja aprovado neste momento. 

Papel do Brasil
Os debatedores também destacaram o papel do Brasil na Conferência de Genebra. O ministro Edson Santos acredita que o País terá o papel de mediar debates, principalmente se os Estados Unidos e países da Europa não comparecerem à conferência. 

O secretário de Ações com a Sociedade e o Governo da Comunidade Bahá’i do Brasil, Iradj Roberto Eghrari, reforçou o papel do Brasil de pautar a agenda internacional na conferência da ONU. Segundo o secretário, o País tem muito a dizer, por exemplo, quanto às melhores práticas, como a criação de uma secretaria para promoção da igualdade racial.

A audiência foi realizada a pedido do deputado Luiz Couto, da deputada Janete Rocha Pietá (PT-SP) e do coordenador da Frente Parlamentar pela Igualdade Racial, deputado Carlos Santana (PT-RJ). Também participaram do debate representantes do Ministério das Relações Exteriores e de movimentos sociais.

Reportagem – Noéli Nobre
Edição – Maria Clarice Dias

Agência Câmara

Incrível documentário numa releitura dos protocolos dos sábios de sião , 11 de setembro, jesus e madalena e o espírito de guerra que permeia a dinâmica internacional atual. Nesse documento os temas são tratados de uma forma crítica e inteligente por judeus e não judeus. Top video. Imperdível.

 

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