Posts com Tag ‘China’

Estão produzindo um longa metragem sobre o Genghis Khan (o mesmo roteirista do Appocalipse Now), previsto para 2010.

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Genghis Khan’s Tengriism

Publicado: março 8, 2009 por Yogi em Culture, History, Media, Tudo
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Genghis Khan’s religion is widely speculated to be Shamanism or Tengriism, which was very likely among nomadic MongolTurkic tribes of Central Asia. But he was very tolerant religiously, and interested to learn philosophical and moral lessons from other religions. To do so, he consulted among others with  Christian   missionaries,  Muslim   merchants, and the Taoist monk Qiu Chuji.

Tengriism (Tengrism, Tengrianism, Tengrianizm, Tengricilik) was the major belief of the Mongols andTurkic peoples before the vast majority joined the established world religions. It focuses around the sky deityTengri (also Tangri, Tangra, Tanrı, etc.) and incorporates elements of shamanismanimismtotemism andancestor worship.

“Khukh” and “Tengri” literally mean “blue” and “sky” in Mongolian language and modern Mongolians still pray to “Munkh khukh tengri” (“eternal blue sky”). Therefore Mongolia is called as “land of Eternal Blue Sky (“Munkh khukh tengriin oron” in Mongolian). And also in modern Turkey Tengriism is sometimes called Gök Tanrı religion by some scholars. Note that the Turkish “Gök” and “Tanrı” mean the same as and sound very similar to the Mongolian “khukh” (blue) and “Tengri” (sky), respectively. Even though there is insufficient research, Tengriism is thought to heavily influence the Alevi belief system. Today, there are still a large number of Tengriist people living in inner Asia, such as the Khakas and Tuvans.

In Tengriism, the meaning of life is seen as living in harmony with the surrounding world. Tengriist believers view their existence as sustained by the eternal blue SkyTengri, the fertile Mother-Earth, spirit Eje, and a ruler who is regarded as the holy spirit of the SkyHeavenEarth, the spirits of nature and the ancestors provide every need and protect all humans. By living an upright and respectful life, a human being will keep his world in balance and maximize his personal power Wind HorseShamans play an important role in restoring balance when it is thrown off by disaster or spirit interference.

It is likely that Tengriism was the religion of the HunsEurasian Avars, early Hungarians, and of the early Bulgarswho brought it to Europe.[3]. It is still actively practised in SakhaBuryatiaTuva, and Mongolia, in parallel withTibetan Buddhism and Burkhanism.


A diagram of the Tengriist World view on a shaman‘s drum [1] [2]. The World-tree is growing in the centre and connecting the three Worlds: UnderworldMiddleworldand Upperworld.


An ovoo (Mongolianовооheap) is a type of shamanistic cairn found in Mongolia, usually made from rocks or from wood. Ovoos are often found at the top of mountains and in high places, like mountain passes. They serve mainly as religious sites, used in worship of the mountains and the sky as well as in Buddhist ceremonies, but often are also landmarks. At especially prominent sites, ovoos can come in clusters, for example of 13 ovoos.

When travelling, it is custom to stop and circle an ovoo three times in clockwise direction, in order to have a safer journey. Usually, rocks are picked up from the ground and added to the pile. Also, one may leave offerings in the form of sweets, money, milk, or vodka.

Ovoos are also used in mountain- and sky-worshipping ceremonies that typically take place at the end of summer. Worshippers place a tree branch or stick in the ovoo and tie a blue khadag, a ceremonial silk scarf symbolic of the open sky, to the branch.[1] They then light a fire and make food offerings, followed by a ceremonial dance and prayers (worshippers sitting at the northwest side of the ovoo), and a feast with the food left over from the offering.

During Mongolia’s Communist period, ovoo worship was officially prohibited along with other forms of religion, but people still worshipped clandestinely.[2]

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 The Blue Sky with a White Sun (Chinese青天白日pinyin: Qīng tīan bái rì) serves as the design for the party flag and emblem of the Kuomintang (KMT), the canton of the flag of the Republic of China, the national emblem of the Republic of China (ROC), and as the naval jack of the ROC Navy.

In the “Blue Sky with a White Sun” symbol, the twelve rays of the white Sun representing the twelve months and the twelve traditional Chinese hours (時辰 shíchen), each of which corresponds to two modern hours (小時 xiǎoshí, literal meaning: “little shi“) and symbolizes the spirit of progress.

The “Blue Sky with a White Sun” flag was originally designed by Lu Hao-tung, a “martyr” of the Republican revolution. He presented his design to represent the revolutionary army at the inauguration of the Society for Regenerating China, an anti-Qing society in Hong Kong, on February 211895. In 1905, Sun Yat-sen added a red field to the design to create what would become the current flag of the Republic of China.

During the Wuchang Uprising in 1911 that heralded the Republic of China, the various revolutionary armies had different flags. Lu Hao-tung’s “Blue Sky with a White Sun” flag was used in the provinces of Guangdong,GuangxiYunnan, and Guizhou, while the “18-Star Flag“, “Five-Colored Flag“, and other designs were used elsewhere.

 National Emblem of the Republic of China

When the government of the Republic of China was established on January 11912, The “Five-Colored” flag was adopted as the national flag, but Sun Yat-sen did not consider its design appropriate, reasoning that horizontal order implied a hierarchy or class like that which existed during dynastic times. Thus, when he established a rival government inGuangzhou in 1917, he brought over the “Blue Sky with a White Sun” flag for the party and the “Blue Sky, White Sun, and a Wholly Red Earth” (then the naval ensign) for the nation. This officially became the national flag in 1928, and continued to serve as the naval ensign; the “Blue Sky with a White Sun” flag was adopted as the naval jack at the same time.

In the early years of the Republic, under the KMT’s political tutelage, the KMT party flag shared the same prominence as the ROC flag. A common wall display consisted of the KMT flag perched on the left and the ROC flag perched on the right, each tilted at an angle with a portrait of National Father Sun Yat-sen displayed in the center.

Since the ROC government moved to Taiwan and especially in the years since the end of martial law the KMT flag has lost some of its prominence. However, it is still frequently seen in political rallies and other meetings of KMT and the pan-blue coalition.

The flag and the KMT party emblem made news during the ROC legislative elections of 2004, when President Chen Shui-bian suggested that the Kuomintang’s flag and party emblem violated the ROC’s National Emblem Law for being too similar to the national emblem of the Republic of China. Chen stated that the law forbids the ROC’s emblem and flag from being used by non-governmental organizations and warned that the KMT would have three months to change its flag and emblem if his Democratic Progressive Party won a majority of seats in the legislature. The KMT responded by asking the government to change the national emblem, saying the KMT emblem existed first. However, the pan-green coalition failed to win a majority, and Chen took no action for the remainder of his presidency.

Party Emblem of the Kuomintang

A Revolução Cultural

A polêmica Revolução Cultural (1966-1969), empreendida por Mao Tsé-Tung com o apoio de sua esposa, Jiang Qing, destituiu os quadros do Partido Comunista Chinês, que queriam uma linha política e econômica mais moderada. Em 1968, Mao Tsé-tung destituiu Liu Shaoqi e, em 1971, tirou do poder seu sucessor,Lin Biao. Foram criados os guardas vermelhos, que se fundamentavam no chamado Livro Vermelho, que continha citações de Mao.

Mais tarde, apoiou a política de Zhou Enlai, consolidando o crescimento econômico e ultrapassando o isolamento da China. Em 1972, recebeu o presidente dos Estados Unidos, Richard Nixon, em Pequim. Nos últimos anos de vida, com a saúde seriamente afetada, caiu sob a influência da facção radical do partido (Bando dos Quatro), organizada em torno de Jiang Qing. Apesar da desmaoização iniciada após sua morte, Mao Tsé-Tung teve especial aceitação nos países do Terceiro Mundo como teórico da guerra popular revolucionária.

Mao Tse-Tung na wiki em PT.

Mao Zedong na wiki em EN. 


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Esse é o nome do partido comunista que governa Taiwan. O líder chinês na Guerra do Ópio foi general do partido. Logo após a “reconquista” da China contra os Inglêses, quando ingressaram no século da vergonha, com a perda de Hong-Kong para a inglaterra, muitos migraram e constituiram Taiwan. Quem quiser ler mais, sugiro wiki em português e wiki em inglês. A definição abaixo é do Dicionário Político, mantido pela Marxists Internet Archive.

O Kuomintang (Partido Nacionalista do Povo) foi fundado na China em 25 de agosto de 1912, teve sua origem na “Liga Revolucionária Unida” (Tongmenghui) fundada em 20 de agosto de 1905, que por sua vez foi originada da “Sociedade para o Despertar da China” (Xingzhonghui) fundada em 24 de novembro de 1894. Sun Yatsen esteve à frente da fundação de todas estas organizações. Após a sua morte, assumiu a liderança do Kuomintang Chiang Kai-shek.